Ancient Egypt

         

Page by Anneke Bart




 

Kings and Queens

4th dynasty
Seneferu, Khufu, Khafre, Menkaure, Djedefre, etc.

11th dynasty
Kings named Mentuhotep and Intef

12th dynasty
Amenemhet I - IV,
Senusret I-III


18th dynasty
Amenhotep I-IV,
Tuthmosis I-IV, Akhenaten, Tutankhamen, Aye, Horemheb, etc.


19th dynasty
Sety I-II, Ramesses I-II, Merenptah, Amenmesses, Tawosret.

20th dynasty

Sethnakht, Ramesses III
Ramesses IV - XI



Cleopatra VII Philopator

Queens (D1-6)- Old Kingdom
Queens (D11-13) Middle Kingd.
Queens (D16-20)- New Kingdom
Queens (D21-29)- Late Period



 

Officials, Priesthood etc.
Viziers (New Kingdom)
High Priests of Amun
God's Wives of Amun
High Priests of Ptah
Viceroys of Nubia
Who's who of New Kingdom


Amarna Period
Akhenaten
Queen Nefertiti
inscriptions Queen Nefertiti.
Queen Kiya

Smenkhare
Tutankhamen
Tombs at Amarna
Houses at Amarna

 
Tombs:
Valley of the Kings,
Valley of the Queens
Theban Tombs,
Tombs at Abydos
Tombs at El Kab
Tombs in Aswan
Early dynastic Saqqara
New Kingdom Saqqara
The Unis Cemetary

 
Mastabas at the Giza Plateau
Giza Mastabas 1000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 2000 cemetary
Giza Mataba 2300 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 4000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 5000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 6000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 7000 cemetary
 

Mummy Caches
Tomb DB320
Tomb KV35

Horemheb



Horus name: Kanakht Sepedsekheru
Nebty name: Werbiatemipetsut
Golden Falcon name: Horhermaatsekhepertawy
Prenomen: Djeserkheperure Setepenre
Nomen: Horemheb



Djeserkheperure Setepenre, Horemheb Meryamun

Family:
The parents of Horemheb are not known.
Horemheb served Tutankhamen and may have served Akhenaten before that. Some have suggested that Horemheb may be identical to a general named Pa-aten-emheb from the Amarna period, but this identification is by no means certain.

Two wives are known from horemheb's non-royal tomb in Saqqara.
Amenia was likely Horemheb's wife before he came to the throne.
Mutnodjemet was Horemheb's Great Royal Wife. Some speculate that Mutnodjemet is identical to the sister of Nefertiti mentioned in the tombs in Amarna. Mutnodjemet was buried in Horemheb's tomb in Saqqara, probably in year 12 of his reign. A body was found of a woman in her forties who seems to have died in childbirth.
   
                       


On the left: Amenia, Horemheb's non-royal wife
On the right: Queen Mutnodjemet

There are no known brothers or sisters of Horemheb and no known children.

Horemheb is a well-known general from the time of Pharaoh Tutankhamen. Horemheb must have started his career under Akhenaten or even earlier. There is some speculation that a courtier named Paatenemheb was none other than Horemheb during Akhenaten's reign. Paatenemheb had a tomb prepared in Amarna (tomb 24) and he has the titles King's scribe, General of the Lord of the Two Lands, Steward of the Lord of the Two Lands. Given the later titles of Horemheb it is possible that soon after Tutankhamen returned to Thebes, Paatenemheb changed his name to Horemheb and chose to have a temple tomb built in Saqqara now that the necropolis in Amarna was being abandoned.

The temple tomb iin Saqqara gives us some idea of the importance of Horemheb during the reign of Tutankhamen. The general is seen leading prisoners before the King and Queen and his titles show that he must have been a man of quite some influence.
According to Breasted's Ancient Records, the titles include: "Hereditary prince, count, wearer of the royal seal, sole companion, privy councilor of the palace, superior in the whole land, fanbearer at the right of the king, general of the Lord of the Two Lands, real king's-scribe", "deputy of the king, presiding over the Two Lands", "Privy councilor of the palace", "chief prophet of Horus, lord of Sebi", "king's-follower on his expeditions in the south and north country" and "presider over the Two Lands, in order to carry on the administration of the Two Lands, general of generals of the Lord of the Two Lands" to name but a few.

After Tutankhamen's death Aye takes the throne of Egypt, but only rules for three of four years. It is likely that Horemheb continued to serve as general of Egypt's army during that time period. After Aye's death Horemheb become the next pharaoh of Egypt.



Some events from his reign:

Expedition to Punt.
Shown is a visit by the chiefs of Punt bringing tribute. Horemheb is seen presenting newly acquired gifts from Punt to Amun.

Wars:
A campaign against Kush is described in Silsileh.
There was a war in the North mentioning the princes of Haunebu


Major monuments:

Temple Tomb in Saqqara

This tomb was excavated in the 1970's. The tomb dates to the time of Tutankhamen when Horemheb was an army leader. The tomb was later used for the burial of Horemhbe's wife, Queen Mutnedjemet. A body of a lady in her forties was found and she was buried with the body of a baby. This likely points to the fact that Mutnedjemet died trying to provide her husband with an heir.
The temple tomb is about 48 m long and 15 m wide. The superstructure consists of a forecourt, a pylon, an outer courtyard, a statue room flanked by two storerooms, an inner courtyard, and three offering-chapels.
(Some of this info comes from the Leiden University Website, see Saqqara Online for more detail.)

   

The hall of the Saqqara tomb. On the right a scene from the tomb depicting nobles.



A scene depicting chariots, horses and their attendants (J Bodsworth)

Speos at Gebel-el-Silsila

There are several scenes showing Horemheb before an assortment of deities. There are also several scenes showing prisoners of war. One interesting scene shows Horemheb being nursed by a goddess. Usually this goddess would be either Isis or Hathor, but here the goddess seems to be Taweret.
In another scene Horemheb is shown on a palaquin, carried by approximately 12 men (Lepsius Abt III, Band 6, Bl 121)

 

Horemheb before Thoth and Hathor, and before two other deities  Lepsius Abt III, Band 6, Bl 119



Horemheb nursed by Taweret,
Lepsius Abt III, Band 6, Bl 120

Temple in Abahuda
In this temple we see Horemheb crowned by both Seth and Horus. Further scenes show Horemheb before Thoth, Horus, Anukis, etc.



Horemheb between Seth and Horus  Lepsius Abt III, Band 6, Bl 122

Tomb KV57
Horemheb's tomb is located in the West branch of the Southwest wadi. The tomb was discovered in 1908 by Ayrton, who worked for T. Davis at that time. The tomb had been plundered in antiquity. Human remains were found in the tomb - as many as eight mummies - but it is not known if these dated to the 18th dynasty or possibly came from later intrusive burials.
Theban Mapping Project page for KV 57
Osirisnet Page for Horemheb's tomb


Officials from the Time of Horemheb

Viziers:
Paramessu. Northern Vizier. Son of Seti. On the 400 year stela his title are given as: Prince regent, the mayor of the town, the vizier,  the chief of the archers, the governor of the fortress of Tjarw, the royal scribe, the administrative officer of the chariotry.

Usermontu? Usermontu served under Tutankhamen as Vizier of the South. Usermontu is still mentioned in tombs of the time of Ramsees II.  It is possible he actually remained in office at the time of Horemheb.

Viceroy of Nubia:
Paser Viceroy under Ay and Horemheb. Son of Amenhotep - Huy (Viceroy under Tutankhamen) and Taemwadsji.
Titles: Overseer of the Gold Lands of Amun, King’s Son of Kush, overseer of the Southern Lands. Overseer of the Lands of Amun in Ta-Set, Overseer of the Gold Lands. King's scribe.
The Viceroys of Ethiopia (II) by George A. Reisner The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 6, No. 1. (Jan., 1920), pp. 73-88.

Amenemopet:  Overseer of the two granaries of Upper and Lower Egypt, Overseer of the treasury of the Lord of the Two Lands, etc.,

Maya, Fan-bearer on the King’s right hand, King’s Scribe, Overseer of the Treasury,etc Son of the Judge Yuy and Weret. Maya was married to his half-sister Meryt, and they had two daughters: Mayamenti and Tjauenmaya. Maya also had two brothers: Nakht, scribe of the treasury of the Lord of the Two Lands, and Parennefer, Overseer of the Bowmen, Overseer of the horses. Meryt had a brother (who was then a half-brother of Maya) named Nahuher. Nahuher was Royal scribe and High Steward of the Ramesseum.

Pa-atenemheb, Royal Butler, Time of Tutankhamen to maybe Horemheb.Mother: Merytptah;   Wife: Tipuy;  Children: 2 unnamed daughters. Known from a tomb-chapel in the Museum in Leiden. The chapel is the middle one of three cult-areas from the back of the tomb.

Raia, son of Pay. Pay served under Tutankhamen and Raia followed his father. Raia was scribe of the treasury, royal scribe of the temple of Ptah, stable master, bow carrier of the lord of the Two Lands, overseer of the horses, fanbearer on the right of the King, Overseer of the King’s private apartments of the Harem of Memphis. Raia may have lived on until the reign of Seti I. Son of Pay and Repyt;  Brothers: Nebre and Mahu.

Ramose, Troop-commander and Deputy of the Army. Shown in Horemheb’s tomb in Saqqara, and buried nearby. Ramose had a brother called Tjay and possibly a wife by the name of Wina.

Sementawy Mentioned in Horemheb's tomb in Saqqara. May have been Horemheb's assistant?

Thutmose, Steward of The Southern City (Thebes), Assistant of Maya. Son of Hatiay and Yuh

Priesthood:
Parennefer (also called Wennefer) was High Priest of Amen during the reigns of Tutankhamen and Horemheb

Nebwa First prophet of Amun-Re of Pa-ju, son of Huy and Mutnefer(t) Songstress of Amun of Paju [Griffith Inst.]

Neferhotep, Priest ('god's father') of Amun-Ra, TT 50 Son of Amenemonet (Divine Father of Amun) and Takhat (Chief of the harem of Amun).In the tomb we see Maya, the Overseer of the treasury as fan-bearer, followed by the governors of Upper and Lower Egypt before Horemheb. Neferhotep and Parennufer (Divine father of Amun) are congratulated by father. (In year 3 of Horemheb). 

Army:
Paramessu. Northern Vizier. Son of Seti. On the 400 year stela his title are given as: Prince regent, the mayor of the town, the vizier,  the chief of the archers, the governor of the fortress of Tjarw, the royal scribe, the administrative officer of the chariotry.

Ramose, Troop-commander and Deputy of the Army. Shown in Horemheb’s tomb in Saqqara, and buried nearby. Ramose had a brother called Tjay and possibly a wife by the name of Wina.

Sementawy Mentioned in Horemheb's tomb in Saqqara. May have been Horemheb's assistant?




Bibliography / Suggested Reading
Breasted, J.H. Ancient Records of Egypt, Vol2, The eighteenth dynasty. Chicago 1906 (reprinted in 2001)
Dodson A. and Hilton D. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, London 2004
Martin, G.T.  The Hidden Tombs of Memphis, London 1991
Murnane, W.J. , Texts from the Amarna Period in Egypt, Atlanta 1995

Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Statues, Reliefs and PaintingsVolume VIII: Objects of Provenance Not Known: Statues by Jaromir Malek, Diana Magee and Elizabeth Miles (Published online by the Griffith Institute)
The Saqqara Online website maintained by Leiden University (the Netherlands)
http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/chronology/haremhab.html
Amenia, 1ª Esposa, Mutnodjmet, 2ª Esposa : Las mujeres en la vida de Horemheb
http://www.inicia.es/de/alex_herrero_pardo/Mujeres_Horemheb.htm











Comments: email barta@slu.edu