Ancient Egypt


Page by Anneke Bart


Kings and Queens

4th dynasty
Seneferu, Khufu, Khafre, Menkaure, Djedefre, etc.

11th dynasty
Kings named Mentuhotep and Intef

12th dynasty
Amenemhet I - IV,
Senusret I-III

18th dynasty
Amenhotep I-IV,
Tuthmosis I-IV, Akhenaten, Tutankhamen, Aye, Horemheb, etc.

19th dynasty
Sety I-II, Ramesses I-II, Merenptah, Amenmesses, Tawosret.

20th dynasty

Sethnakht, Ramesses III
Ramesses IV - XI

Cleopatra VII Philopator

Queens (D1-6)- Old Kingdom
Queens (D11-13) Middle Kingd.
Queens (D16-20)- New Kingdom
Queens (D21-29)- Late Period


Officials, Priesthood etc.
Viziers (New Kingdom)
High Priests of Amun
God's Wives of Amun
High Priests of Ptah
Viceroys of Nubia
Who's who of New Kingdom

Amarna Period
Queen Nefertiti
inscriptions Queen Nefertiti.
Queen Kiya

Tombs at Amarna
Houses at Amarna

Valley of the Kings,
Valley of the Queens
Theban Tombs,
Tombs at Abydos
Tombs at El Kab
Tombs in Aswan
Early dynastic Saqqara
New Kingdom Saqqara
The Unis Cemetary

Mastabas at the Giza Plateau
Giza Mastabas 1000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 2000 cemetary
Giza Mataba 2300 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 4000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 5000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 6000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 7000 cemetary

Mummy Caches
Tomb DB320
Tomb KV35


Queen Meritaten

Smenkhare and Merytaten?

Titles:  King’s Daughter of his body, his beloved (s3t-niswt-nt-kht.f-meryt.f), Great King’s Wife (hmt-niswt-wrt)

Full title on some Amarna monuments:
King’s Daughter of his body, his beloved Merit-aten, born of the great royal wife, his beloved, Lady of the Two Lands (Neferneferuaten)| may she live (s3t-niswt-nt-kht.f-meryt.f-mr-t-itn-ms-n-hmt-niswt-wrt-meryt.f-nbt-t3wy-(itn-nfr-u-nfr-tyit)| anx-s)

Early years as Princess Meritaten.
Meritaten was the eldest daughter of Akhenaten and Nefertiti. Meritaten already appears in the very early monuments at Karnak. She is the only princess who appears in these early scenes and is shown accompanying her mother Nefertiti.
Meritaten is depicted on all the boundary stela in Akhenaten (Tell El-Amarna). She must have been a small girl when she moved with her parents to this new city.


Princess Meritaten stands behind her parents Akhenaten and Nefertiti.
She is followed by her younger sisters Meketaten and Ankhesenpaaten.

Meritaten, Meketaten and
Ankhesenapaaten wait in the wings of the palace
  while their parents hand rewards to the priest Parennefer.


Left: Meritaten stands between Akhenetn and Nefertiti and offers something to her father.
Right: A scene showing Meritaten and Meketaten shaking sistra behined their mother (Nefertiti)

Sculptures of Amarna Princesses. These princesses are not identified and
could represent Meritaten or one of the other royal princesses.

Meritaten as Queen.

Meritaten is raised to the position of Great royal wife sometime during the later years of Akhenaten's reign. It is even possible that she served as Akhenaten's Queen, but this is by no means certain. During the later years of Akhenaten's reign Nefertiti disappears from the scene and it seems that Meritaten took over the role as leading royal lady at court. The Maru-Aten was rededicated. This sunshade / temple used to belong to the royal beloved Kiya, but her image was everywhere adapted for Meritaten. This could be a sign that Kiya had suffered some disgrace, but it's aso possible that this lady died and that others took over her monuments in an act of usurpation we often see in Ancient Egypt. Due to the adaption of the monuments it's not entirely clear if young girls by the name of Meritaten-tasherit ("Meritaten-junior") and Ankhesenpaaten-tasherit ("Ankhesenpaaten-junior") are daughters of Kiya or if these girls are possibly the children of Meritaten.

From a scene in the tomb of Merire we do know that Meritaten married the elusive successor of Akhenaten, named Smenkhare. In the tomb of Merire we see Smenkhare and his great royal wife Meritaten handing out rewards to Merire. The scene is raather non-standard in the fact that the royal couple is depicted standing before the window of appearance. They seem to be standing at the same level as the court official instead of the more traditional depiction where they appear in the window and are shown handing down gifts.

It is not known what happened to Meritaten. There are no known funerary goods inscribed with her name that have ever surfaced. She seems to have disappeared from the scene at roughly the same time as her husband Smenkhare. This has lead some to speculate that both Meriaten and Smenkhare may have died due to a plague that seems to have been ravaging the region at that time.

Others believe that Meritaten did survive and took the throne as Ankh(et)kheperure Neferneferuaten and either ruled until her death or served as regent for the young Tutankhamen.

The last evidence of this royal lady seem to appear however in the tomb of Tutankhamen. Between the paws of the statue of Anubis lay a scribal palette that had once belonged to Meritaten (Griffith Institute). Her name also appears on a box along with the name of Smenkhare.

Some of the inscriptions/scenes mentioning Meritaten as Queen are:

1. Inscription in the tomb of Meryre II in Amarna, showing Smenkhare with Great Royal Wife Meritaten. Smenkhare and Meritaten are shown before the window of appearance while awarding Meryre with the golden collars often seen in these types of scenes. The position of Smenkhare and Meritaten with the palace with the window of appearance shown behind them is rather peculiar.

2. An Amarna Block reused in Hermopolis. No (surviving) image, but the names of Smenkhare and Meritaten appear together on this block.

3. A wooden box with inscriptions mentioning Smenkhare, Akhenaten and Meritaten. It should be noted that the inscriptions actually never mention the name Smenkhare (see photographs and transcripts from the Griffith Institute). The box mentions Neferkheperure-Waenre Akhenaten, Ankhekheperure-mr-waenre, Neferneferuaten-mr-waenre and Meritaten.
The box was meant to contain linnen garments. (Griffith Institute)

Other objects

Bezel ring with Meritaten's name - UC12495 or go directly to

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