Ancient Egypt


Page by Anneke Bart





Kings and Queens

4th dynasty
Seneferu, Khufu, Khafre, Menkaure, Djedefre, etc.

11th dynasty
Kings named Mentuhotep and Intef

12th dynasty
Amenemhet I - IV,
Senusret I-III


18th dynasty
Amenhotep I-IV,
Tuthmosis I-IV, Akhenaten, Tutankhamen, Aye, Horemheb, etc.


19th dynasty
Sety I-II, Ramesses I-II, Merenptah, Amenmesses, Tawosret.

20th dynasty

Sethnakht, Ramesses III
Ramesses IV - XI




Cleopatra VII Philopator

Queens (D1-6)- Old Kingdom
Queens (D11-13) Middle Kingd.
Queens (D16-20)- New Kingdom
Queens (D21-29)- Late Period




Officials, Priesthood etc.
Viziers (New Kingdom)
High Priests of Amun
God's Wives of Amun
High Priests of Ptah
Viceroys of Nubia
Who's who of New Kingdom


Amarna Period
Akhenaten
Queen Nefertiti
inscriptions Queen Nefertiti.
Queen Kiya

Smenkhare
Tutankhamen
Tombs at Amarna
Houses at Amarna

Tombs:
Valley of the Kings,
Valley of the Queens
Theban Tombs,
Tombs at Abydos
Tombs at El Kab
Tombs in Aswan
Early dynastic Saqqara
New Kingdom Saqqara
The Unis Cemetary

Mastabas at the Giza Plateau
Giza Mastabas 1000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 2000 cemetary
Giza Mataba 2300 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 4000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 5000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 6000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 7000 cemetary

Mummy Caches
Tomb DB320
Tomb KV35

Nefertiti


The Princess, great in the palace = irt pat aAt m aH 
fair of face, beautiful in the double plume = nfrt Hr ant m Swty
mistress of joy, united with favour = nbt rSwt Xnmt Hswt
whose voice people rejoice to hear = Haat.tw n sDm xrw.s
Great Royal Wife, his beloved = Hmt nswt wrt mrt.f
Lady of the Two Lands = nbt tAwy  Etc.

 


This is a compilation of texts and images referring to Queen Nefertiti. Nefertiti is of course mentioned most often in Amarna (Akhet-Aten), but we also find mention of her in Karnak, Heliopolis and even as far away as Nubia.
 


From the early part of the reign when the king is still named Amenhotep (IV)

 


Images from Luxor


Fragment found in Luxor Temple
i. (Hor-Aten)|, great living Aten who is in jubilee, Lord of heaven and earth, residing in the Hut-Benben in the Gem-Aten
ii. The Great Royal wife (Nefertiti)|


Titles of the Queen from the Aten Temples at Karnak
I.
Heiress of great favor, possessor of charm, sweet [of love,...], mistress of Upper and Lower Egypt, Great royal Wife, his beloved, Lady of the Two Lands, (Nefertiti)|, may she live forever continually.
II.
When referred to in the titles of her daughters, she is sometimes called The Great Royal wife (Nefertiti)| and at other times the Great Royal wife (Neferneferuaten - Nefertiti)|:
The princesses:
King's bodily daughter of the King's Wife (?), [Meritaten (?)] born to the Great Royal wife (Nefertiti)|
[King's bodily daughter, his beloved], Meretaten born to [the Great Royal wife (Neferneferuaten - Nefertiti)|
,] may she live forever and continually.
[King's bodily daughter, his beloved], Meketaten born to [the Great Royal wife (Neferneferuaten - Nefertiti)|
,] may she live forever and continually.
[King's] bodily [daughter], his beloved, Ankhesenpaaten born [to the Great Royal wife] (Neferneferuaten - Nefertiti)|
, may she live forever and continually.


Scarab Found at Sedeinga in Nubia

Long live the Good god whose renown is great; possessor of the great name, whose titulary is holy; [possessor] of jubilees like Tatenen, master of lifetime [like] Aten in heaven, established on the Ished tree which is in Heliopolis - namely (?),The King of Upper and Lower Egypt (Neferkheperure - Waenre)|, given life, Son of Re, his beloved, (Amenhotep)|, long [in] his lifetime]; and he Great Royal wife (Nefertiti)|, [may she] live.


Relief with titles of Queen Nefertiti from the Temple of Sesebi in Nubia.

(reliefs later erased and usurped by Sety I)
Hereditary Princess, greatly favored, sweet of love, Lady of Upper and Lower Egypt, [... in the] palace, who bears witness to the horizon and ascends(?) to [...], Great royal Wife, his beloved, [(Neferneferuaten-Nefertiti)|
, may she] live forever continually.


Scarab bought in Luxor mentioning Amenhotep (IV) and Nefertiti.

<text omitted>
i. King:
King of Upper and Lower Egypt who lives on Maat, Lord of the Two Lands, (Neferkheperure - Waenre)|, [Son of Re], who lives on Maat, Lord of Crowns, (Amenhotep)|, long in his lifetime.
ii. Queen:
the Great Royal wife (Nefertiti)|, may she live.

Rock inscription at Wadi Abu Qwei in the Eastern Desert.
The cartouches of (Neferkheperure - Waenre)|
(Amenhotep)| and (Neferneferuaten-Nefertiti)| are shown beneath the Aten disk.A man holding a double-plumes fan adores the King's two cartouches: Made by the deputy Amenmose belonging to the troop "Re of the Rulers" of the House of Life.


Stelas from Amarna

Earlier Stelae: The King is shown in the Khepresh Crown and the Queen with a tripartite wig with modius, horned sundisk and double plumes. The Queen is depicted at roughly the same scale as the King (She reaches to shoulder height or even somewhat taller.)

Later Stelae: The King is usually depicted in the Khepresh Crown and the Queen in her Blue crown or a cap.

Boundary Stela from Amarna; Year 5; the Earlier Proclamation:

I. Introduction: <text omitted> The Princess, great in the palace, fair of face, beautiful in the double plumes, mistress of joy, whose voice people rejoice to hear, possessor of graciousness, great of love, whose arrangements please the Lord of the Two Lands, Head of the Aten's female entourage, who satisfies him when he rises in the horizon; for whom is done what she has said about any [thing], great wife of the king, his beloved, Lady of the Two Lands, (Nefertiti)|, may she live forever.
II. Initial Appearance and Speech by the King:<some text omitted> So make Akhet-Aten as an estate of [the] Aten, my father, in its entirety - for I have made [it as a memorial(?), whether belonging to my name] or belonging to [her] name - namely the Great Royal wife (Neferneferuaten - Nefertiti)| - or belonging to his name forever and ever.
III. The courtiers reply
<text omitted>
IV. Decree

<text omitted>
"At Akhetaten in this place shall I make the House of Aten for the Aten, my father."
"At Akhetaten in this place shall I make the Mansion of Aten for the Aten, my father."
"At Akhetaten in this place shall I make the sunshade of the Great Royal wife (Neferneferuaten - Nefertiti)| for the Aten, my father."
"In the Island of Aten, whose jubilees are distinguished at Akhetaten in this place shall I make the ÔHouse of Rejoicing' for the Aten, my father."
"In the Island of Aten, whose jubilees are distinguished at Akhetaten in this place shall I make the 'House of Rejoicing in Akhet-Aten' for the Aten, my father."
"At Akhetaten in this place shall I make all revenues that [are] in [the entire land] to belong to the Aten, my father."
"At Akhetaten in this place shall I make oblations overflowing for the Aten, my father."
"At Akhetaten in this place shall I make for myself the residence of Pharaoh, L.P.H., (and) I shall make the residence for the Great Royal Wife."
"Let a tomb be made for me in the orient mountain [of Akhet-Aten], and let my burial be made in it, in the millions of jubilees which the Aten, my father decreed for me. Thet the burial of the Great Royal wife (Neferneferuaten - Nefertiti)| be made in it, in the millions of jubilees which the Aten, my father decreed for her. (And) let the burial of the King's Daughter Meritaten be made in it, in these millions of years. If I should die in any town of the downstream, the south, the west of the orient in these millions of years, let me be brought back so that I may be buried in Akhet-Aten. If the Great Royal Wife (Nefertiti)| - may she live! - should die in any town of the downstream, the south, the west of the orient in these millions of years, let her be brought back so that she may be buried in Akhet-Aten. (And) if the King's Daughter Meritaten dies in any town of the downstream, the south, the west of the orient in these millions of years, let her be brought back so that she may be buried in Akhet-Aten."
<text omitted>

[Two more references are made to the Great Royal wife (Neferneferuaten - Nefertiti)|  but the text is severely damaged.]

Boundary Stela from Amarna; Year 6; the Later Proclamation:

I. Introduction: <text omitted>
The Princess, great in the palace, fair of face, beautiful in the double plumes, mistress of joy who attracts favor, at the hearing of whose voice one exults, Great Royal Wife, his beloved, the Mistress of Upper and Lower Egypt, Lady of the Two Lands,
(Nefertiti)|, may she live and be healthy, youthful, and enduring everlastingly forever.
II. Royal Progress to Akhet-Aten and Rites Held There:

<text omitted>
III. Journey to the Southeastern Corner of Akhet-Aten and Preamble to Decree.

<text omitted>
Oath spoken by the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, who lives on Maat, Lord of the Two Lands,
(Neferkheperure - Waenre)|, son of Ra, who lives on Maat, Lord of Crowns, (Akhenaten)|, long in his lifetime, given life for ever and eternity.
As lives my father,
(Hor-Aten)|, given life for ever and eternity, (and) as my heart is gratified with the king's wife, and her children, which will cause the great king's wife (Neferneferuaten - Nefertiti)| - granted life eternally- to reach old age in this million years, while she is under the authority of Pharaoh l.p.h.;
And old age be granted to the king's daughter Meretaten and the king's daughter Meketaten, her children, while they are under the authority of the king's wife
their mother, for ever and eternity: Here is this genuine oath of mine, that I wish to say, that I do not say falsely, for ever and eternity.
IV The Decree <text omitted>
V. Renewal of Oath <text omitted>
VI Year 8 addition.
<text omitted>



Nefertiti as depicted on Stela N


 
Stela S with a fragment on the right showing the two royal princesses


Private Cult Stela depicting the Royal Family

King and Queen giving jewelry to their daughter:

Around the border: Long live the (Hor-Aten)|, given life forever continually;
The King of upper and Lower Egypt, the Lord of the Two Lands (Neferkheperure - Waenre)|, the son of Re who lives on Maat, Lord of Crowns , (Akhenaten)| , great in his lifetime.; the Great Royal Wife (Neferneferuaten - Nefertiti)| may she live forever continually.
Next to the Sun-disk:
(Hor-Aten)|, given life forever continually; great living Aten who is in jubilee, Lord of everything Aten encircles, lord of heaven, lord of earth in the House of Aten in Akhet-Aten.
Princess receiving bracelet:
King's bodily daughter, his beloved, Meritaten, born to the the Great Royal Wife, his beloved, Mistress of the Two Lands (Neferneferuaten - Nefertiti)| may she live forever continually.
Princess sitting on Queen's knee:
King's bodily daughter, his beloved, Meketaten, born to the the Great Royal Wife, his beloved, Mistress of the Two Lands (Neferneferuaten - Nefertiti)| may she live forever continually.
Princess standing on Queen's knee:
King's bodily daughter, his beloved, Ankhesenpaaten, born to the the Great Royal Wife, his beloved, Mistress of the Two Lands (Neferneferuaten - Nefertiti)| may she live forever continually.


Private Cult Stela depicting the Royal Family
Akhenaten (on the left) faces Nefertiti.
Meritaten is held by Akhenaten, who lifts and kisses her. Meketaten sits on her mother's lap and points to her father and sister. Ankhesenpaaten stands on her mother's lap and caresses her cheek. [the texts are standard]

Stela Found in the Royal Tomb at Amarna Akhenaten, Nefertiti, Meritaten and Meketaten offer flowers to the Aten


   
Nefertiti shown offering to the aten. She is depicted with her blue crown, the hathoric double plumes and a khat headdress respectively.




Stelae from other locations

Stela from Heliopolis showing the royal family before the Aten
Top register: King Queen and Princes kneel before the Aten
Beside Disk:
(Hor-Aten)|, given life forever continually; great living Aten who is in jubilee, lord of heaven, lord of earth, residing in (the temple) "Elevating Re in Heliopolis".
Middle register: Akhenaten and Nefertiti prostrate themselves before the Aten
Lower register: Two princess prostrate themselves before the Aten
Below and to the left of the two princesses:
The king's bodily daughter, his beloved, Meketaten, born to the the Great Royal Wife, his beloved, Mistress of the Two Lands (Neferneferuaten - Nefertiti)| may she live forever continually.

Fragment Found at Matariah, near Heliopolis
Beside Disk:
[...] like [Re] forever [...]; great living [Aten], who is in jubilee, Lord of everything Aten encircles, lord of heaven, lord of earth, lord of (the foundation called) "Wall of Re" in Re's Heliopolis.
By Princess:
The king's bodily daughter, his beloved, Meritaten


Tombs in Amarna (and Thebes)

Royal Tomb
Room Alpha: Unknown royal female.
Scene 1:
Appears to depict the death of a royal lady in childbirth. (This woman is thought to be Kiya by some Egyptologist, but this is by no means certain.)
Scene 2:
Akhenaten, Nefertiti, Meritaten and Meketaten adoring the Aten at sunrise. The scene was later adapted to include the Princesses Ankhesenpaaten and Neferneferuaten-tasherit.

Room Gamma: Burial place of Princess Meketaten
Wall A: Akhenaten and Nefertiti stand mourning in the bedchamber of the deceased.

Above bed:
King's bodily daughter, his beloved, Meketaten, born to the the Great Royal Wife, (Neferneferuaten - Nefertiti)| may she live forever continually.
A wetnurse carries away a child who is attended by female fanbearers.

By child: [... born to the King's bodily daughter, his beloved], Meketaten, [born to the the Great Royal Wife, his beloved] (Neferneferuaten - Nefertiti)| may she live forever continually.
Walls B-C: Akhenaten, Nefertiti and three daughters stand before a sunshade (?) in which Meketaten is shown.
Dead Princess:
King's bodily daughter, his beloved, Meketaten, born to the the Great Royal Wife, (Neferneferuaten - Nefertiti)| may she live forever continually.
The three princesses:

King's bodily daughter, his beloved, Meritaten, born to the
the Great Royal Wife, his beloved, Lady of the Two Lands (Neferneferuaten - Nefertiti)| may she live forever continually.
King's bodily daughter, his beloved, Ankhesenpaaten, born to the
the Great Royal Wife, his beloved, Lady of the Two Lands (Neferneferuaten - Nefertiti)| may she live forever continually.
King's bodily daughter, his beloved, Neferneferuaten-tasherit, born to the
the Great Royal Wife, his beloved, Lady of the Two Lands (Neferneferuaten - Nefertiti)| may she live forever continually.

 

(Votive?) Shabti of Nefertiti:
Hereditary Princess, great one in the palace, favored of the King of Upper and Lower Egypt (Neferkheperure - Waenre)|
, Son of Re , (Akhenaten)| long in his lifetime; the Great Royal Wife (Neferneferuaten - Nefertiti)| may she live forever continually.




Tombs of the Nobles 

Tomb of Huya - Nr. 1

Name of the Aten: (Heka-Aten)|, etc. (i.e.later form)
Titles of Huya: the favorite of the Lord of the Two Lands, the overseer of the royal quarters of the Great King's Wife Tiye, treasurer and steward in the house of the King's Chief Wife, Tiye.
South Wall, East Side: Tiye sitting at meal with Akhenaten and Nefertiti

Akhenaten and Nefertiti are seated on the left. Akhnaten seems to wear a khat headdress and Nefertiti a short Nubian style wig. Next to Nefertiti seated on small chairs are Meritaten and one of her sisters - possibly Neferneferuaten-tasherit. Queen Tiye is shown opposite the King and Queen. She is seated and wears the double plumed headdress with the horned sundisk. She is accomponaied by her daughter Baketaten, who is seated next to her on a small chair.



Based on Lepsius, Abt III, Band 6, Bl 100

South Wall, East Side: Tiye sitting at meal with Akhenaten and Nefertiti
Tiye is seated on the left. She wears a tripartite wig, topped with a modius and the double plumes with the horned sun-disk. Baket aten is shown standing next to Tiye.

On the right Akhenaten and Nefertiti are seated and shown drinking from cups. Ankhesenpaaten is shown standing on the footstool in front of Nefertiti, while another princess (Meketaten?) stands next to Neferiti and looks as though she's helping herself to some fruit. Nefertiti is called: "The heiress, great of favor, lady of grace, charming in loving-kindness, mistress of South and North, the Great wife of the King whom he loves, the Lady of the Two Lands, (Nefertiti)|
, living for ever and ever."
East wall: Akhenaten leading Tiye to a temple.
Akhenaten, Tiye and Baketaten are shown as they enter a temple. Nefertiti and her daughters are not shown in this scene.

West Wall: Akhenaten and Nefertiti on the State Palanquin
Akhenaten and Nefertiti are shown being carried on a sedan chair. Akhenaten appears to be wearing the red crown of the north and holding a crook and flail(?). Meritaten and Meketaten are shown walking behind the sedan chair. They are attended by two nurses and six female attendants.

North Wall, West Side: Huya rewarded

Huya appears before Akhenaten and Nefertiti to receive his reward. Two princesses are shown in the palace.

North Wall, East Side: Huya rewarded

Huya appears before Akhenaten and Nefertiti to receive his reward. Two princesses are shown in the palace. The princesses are identified as Meritaten and Meketaten.

North Wall, Lintel: The royal families
On the left hand side we see Akhenaten and Nefertiti seated. Nefertiti turns toward Akhenaten. Akhenaten is shown wearing the khepresh crown and Nefertiti a short wig. Before them we see Meritaten, Meketaten, Ankhesenpaaten and Neferneferuaten-tasherit. All four girls are holding plume shaped wands.

On the right we see Amenhotep III seated opposite Queen Tiye who is accompanied by Baketaten. Three female attendants are shown behind Tiye.


Tomb of Meryre (II) - Nr. 2
Name of the Aten: (Heka-Aten)|, etc. (i.e. later form)
Titles of Meryre: The king's scribe, Overseer of the houses in the royal quarters of the Great Royal Wife Neferneferuaten-Nefertiti, steward.
South Wall West Side: The Queen filling the King's cup.
Nefertiti is shown standing before a seated Akhenaten, pooring a drink through a sieve for the king. Meritaten stands between Akhenetn and Nefertiti, facing her father and offering him something. Behind Nefertiti we see Meketaten offering a perfume cone, while Ankhesenpaaten offers a bouquet of flowers. Below this scene we see female musicians and male servants.


Based on a drawing by Lepsius, Abt III, Band 6, Bl. 98
South Wall, East Side: Reward of Meryra
Meryra is shown before the window of appearance. Akhenaten and Nefertiti are shon handing out collars of gold. In the palace behind the window we see Merytaten and Meketaten handing gold collars to their mother. Ankhesenpaaten is shown standing before Neferneferuaten-tasherit and Neferneferure. Ankhesenpaaten is shown wearing large earrings and three bracelets on each arm. She also appears to be wearing a rather elaborate cape or collar.



See also Lepsius, Abt III, Band 6, Bl. 99

East Wall: Presentation of tribute.

Akhenaten and Nefertiti are shown sitting on a throne holding hands. Their six daughters are shown behind them. Meritaten, Meketaten and Ankhesenpaaten are shown holding hands. Neferneferuaten is holding something in her hands. Neferure is hown holding a gazelle. The youngest daughter, Setepenre, holds a bouquet of flowers while petting the gazelle her older sister is holding.

North Wall East Side: Meryre rewarded by the King

Meryre is shown before "The Lord of the Two Lands (Ankheperure)| Son of Re (Smenkhare- Dejeser-Kheperu)| and the great Royal Wife (Meritaten)|."


Tomb of
Ahmose  - Nr. 3

Name of the Aten: (Hor-Aten)|, etc. (i.e. early form)

Titles of Ahmose: The sealbearer of the King of Lower Egypt, The sole companion, the attendant of the Lord of the Two Lands., the favorite of the good god, true king's scribe, Steward in the house of Akhenaten, Overseer of the front hall of the Lord of the Two Lands (=court of justice?), Fanbearer at the right hand of the king.

West Wall: Akhenaten and Nefertiti riding a chariot.

Akhenaten and Nefertiti are shown together in a chariot accompanied by one of their daughters. Akhenaten wear a khepresh crown, while Nefertiti is shown wearing her flat topped blue crown.

West Wall, Lower half: The royal family eating

Akhenaten is shown seated eating what looks like a roasted duck. Behind him we see Nefertiti seated with one of the princesses on her lap. She is holding meat. Next to Nefertiti we see two more princesses seated on chairs.


Tomb of Meryre (I)  - Nr. 4

Name of the Aten: (Heka-Aten)|, etc. (i.e. the later form)

Titles of Meryre: Greatest of seers of the Aten in Akhet-Aten, Fanbearer on the right of the king, one praised by the Lord of the Two Lands, the sealbearer of the King of Lower Egypt, the sole companion. His wife Tenro was a great favorite of the Lady of the Two Lands.

South Wall,West side: Investiture of Meryra as High Priest

Akhenaten, Nefertiti and Merytaten are shown in the window of appearance. The scene is much damaged and the figures of the king, queen and princess have been erased.

West Wall and North Wall west side: Royal visit to the temple

Akhenaten and Nefertiti are shown riding their chariots. Akhenaten appears to be wearing the Khepresh crown and Nefertiti the flat topped blue crown. They are accompanied by an armed escort. Behind Akhenaten and Nefertiti we see two registers depicting the royal princesses riding chariots in pairs, followed by chariots with female carrying plume shaped fans. In the top register we see Ankhesenpaaten and Neferneferuaten-tasherit and in the lower register we see Meritaten and Meketaten. All four princesses are shown dressed as adults in the long gowns we see typically on women. Their hair is dressed in the Amarna type hairdo where a large bunch is tied up with a ribbon and allowed to hang over one ear, while the rest is worn short.

South Wall, East side: The royal family offering to the sun

Akhenaten and Nefertiti are shown before a large offering table. Akhenaten seems to be wearing his Khepresh crown. Nefertiti wears a blue cap. Her dress is tied with a red sash. Akhenaten and Nefertiti are followed by Meritaten and Meketaten, who are shown shaking a sistrum.

Upper half of East wall and of North wall, East side: Royal family worshipping at the temple

In the upper register Akhenaten elevates the sekhem scepter before the god. The head-dress of the King is destroyed, but we can see that Nefertiti's head-dress was surmounted by the great double feathers with a disk. Akhenaten and Nefertiti are accompanied by four princesses carrying sistra. Only the fourth princess, Neferneferuaten-tasherit, is explicitly named. The princesses are followed by four female attendants carrying plume shaped fans.

Lower half of East wall and of North wall, East side: Meryra rewarded by the King.

The King receives Meryra in the outer court of the granary. The King is depicted leaning on a staff and wearing what appears to be a short Nubian wig. Nefertiti stands behind the King wearing a close fitting cap with a uraeus on her brow. Two princesses are shown in attendance. The second princess clasping the arm of her older sister.


Tomb of Pentu - Nr. 5

Name of the Aten: (Hor-Aten)|, etc. (i.e. early form)

Titles of Pentu: The sealbearer of the King of Lower Egypt, the sole companion, the attendant of the Lord of the Two Lands, the favorite of the good god, king's scribe, the king's subordinate, First servant of the Aten in the mansion of the Aten in Akhetaten, Chief of physicians, chamberlain

North Wall, Upper Scene: The royal family entering the temple

Akhenaten and Nefertiti are shown entering with three of their daughters: Meritaten, Meketaten and most likely Ankhesenpaaten. A similar scene but showing the rewards of Pent must have appeared to the right, but the scene is rather badly damaged.  The King and Queen must have been shown with their daughters, but the Queen's image is badly damaged and the daughters are missing altogether.

North Wall, Lower Scene: The royal family rewarding Pentu

Akhenaten is shown wearing the read crown and Nefertiti stands behind him (the upper half of her body is damaged). Behind the royal couple we see three Princesses accompanied their nurse(s).

The King and Queen having a meal

Akhenaten is shown wearing a khat headdress. He is seated and is eating fowl. Nefertiti is seated behind him, wearing her blue crown and seems to be drinking from a cup.


Tomb of Panhesy - Nr. 6

Name of the Aten: (Hor-Aten)|, etc. (i.e. early  form)

Titles of Panehesy: First servant of the Aten in the house of  Aten in Akhet-Aten, Second prophet of the Lord of the Two Lands Neferkheprure-Waenre (Akhenaten), the sealbearer of the King of Lower Egypt. Overseer of the storehouse of the Aten in Akhetaten, Overseer of cattle of the Aten in Akhet-Aten.

On one of the ceilings Panehesy mentions receiving gold from the king for doing a great thing for his lady, the king's daughter. Panehesy's wife was named Iabka.

Jambs Outer door:

The upper panel shows the King with the crown of the North on the left and the crown of the south on the right. On the left Akhenaten is followed by Nefertiti wearing a Khat headdress. Both seem to be offering loaves (?). On the right Nefertiti wears her blue crown. In these scenes only Merutaten seems to accompany her parents.

Below these scenes we see Akhenaten wearing the kepresh crown and Nefertiti wearing her blue crown again apparently offering food from the offering table.

Lintel Outer door:

Below that we have a double scene showing Akhenaten and Nefertiti with their three eldest daughters before an altar. On the left Akhenaten and Nefertiti are both shown buring incense. Nefertiti wears her flat topped blue crown while Akhenaten is shown wearing his khepresh crown. On the right hand side of the scene Akhenaten still wears the same crown, but Neefertiti is now shown wearing a close fitting cap. The king and queen are shown pouring something from a vase. The three princesses are shown shaking sistra. The presenc3e of two dwarfs ponts to the presence of Nefertiti's sister Mutnodjemet, who is probably depicted in the register above and to the side of the princesses.




Based on a drawing by Lepsius, Abt. III, Band  6, Bl. 91

Thickness of Outer wall:

On the right hand side Akhenaten and Nefertiti raise sekhem scepters, giving homage to the sun. They are accompanied by Meritaten, Meketaten and Ankhesenpaaten, shaking a sistrum. The king wears the Khepresh crown. Nefertiti's image is too heavily damaged to determine her headdress. The Queen's figure is accompanied by rather elaborate titulary:

"The heiress, great of favor, mistress of the district of the South and the North, fair of face and gay with the two feathers, soothing the heart of the King at home (?), pleased at all that is said, the great and beloved wife of the King, Lady of the Two Lands (Nefertiti)|"

 On the right hand side we see the King burning spices in a hawk headed censing-spoon, while the queen presents a bouquet of lotus flowers. Both wear an elaborate Atef-crown. Akhenaten wears a triple Atef crown flanked by uraei and topped with falcons wearing a sundisk and accompanying a double cartouche. Nefertiti wears a double Atef-crown flanked by two uraei. This crown is worn on a uraeus shaped modius and on top of what looks like a khat headdress. In the register below this scene we see the Queen's sister Mutnodjemet accompanied by her two dwarves , two male attendants and four female attendants.Nefertiti's titulary is given as follows:

"The heiress, great of favor, mistress of all women - when she sayeth anything it is done - the great and beloved wife of the King, Lady of the Two Lands (Nefertiti)| living for ever and ever"

South Wall, West Side: Panehesy rewarded

Panehesy appears before the window of appearance. Meritaten appears in the window with Akhenaten and Nefertiti. Nefertiti is shown with her arm around her daughter. Meketaten and Ankhesenpaaten are shown embracing each other in the hall behind the window of appearance. Neferneferuaten-tasherit is shown clasping Ankhesenpaaten's arm. The princesses are accompanied by two nurses.

South Wall, East Side: Royal family offering to the Aten

Akhenaten and Nefertiti are shown offering flowers to the Aten. Akhenaten is depicted with the red crown of the North while Nefertiti seems to be wearing a short Nubian style wig (?). Meritaten, Meketaten, Ankhesenpaaten and Nefernefeuaten-tasherit are shown behing their parents. It is not clear what the older princesses are offering, but Ankhesenpaaten and Nefeneferuaten-tasherit are shown carrying bouquets of flowers just like their parents.

East Wall: Royal Family driving out.

Akhenaten and Nefertiti are each shown driving their own chariot. Both seem to be wearing a blue crown. Nefertiti is shown with a whip held in her left hand. There are two chariots carrying two princesses each. Most likely Meritaten, Meketaten, Ankhesenpaaten and Nefernefeuaten-tasherit. There are also three chariots carrying six female attendants.

West Wall: Royal Family at the temple

Akhenaten and Nefertiti are shown side by side on a raised platform before an altar. Nefertiti is shown to the left of Akhenaten and is only indicated by an outline. They seem to be pooring something onto the altar. Meritaten is shown offering loaves, while Meketaten and Ankhesenpaaten shake a sitrum. The princesses are accompanied by two nurses and three attendants.

North wall: The King and Queen Worshipping.

This scene was much damaged during the Coptic period. Akhenaten is shown holding up a plate with food offerings. Nefertiti stands behind him either holding up her hands or possibly offering up flowers or food which can no longer be seen,

Southern Tombs


Tomb of Parennefer - Nr. 7

Name of the Aten: (Hor-Aten)|, etc. (i.e. early form)

Titles of Parennefer: pure handed cupbearer of the king's Person,

His wife (name lost)  a favorite of the King's Chief Wife Neferneferuaten Nefertiti.

Facade: Akhenaten, Nefertiti, Meritaten, Meketaten (and on the left Ankhesenpaaten) offering to the Aten.

North Thickness: Akhenaten, Nefertiti and three daughters offer to the Aten. Akhenaten seems to wear a Khepresh Crown, Nefertiti is depicted wearing a Nubian wig.

South Thickness: Parennefer offers a prayer.



Based on De Garis Davies drawing, See also Lepsius Abt III, BAnd 6, Bl. 109

West Wall: Award Scene showing Akhenaten and Nefertiti in the window of Appearances. Meritaten, Meketaten, Ankhesenpaaten and the Queen's Sister Mutnodjemet are shown in the palace in a room behind the window.

East Wall: The King gives and audience to Parennefer.

Tomb of Tutu - Nr. 8

Name of the Aten: (Hor-Aten)|, etc. (i.e. early form)

Titles of Tutu: The Chief Servitor of (Neferkheperure - Waenre)|  in the temple of Aten in Akhet-Aten, the Chamberlain.

South Thickness: Tutu recited hymn to the Aten

North Thickness: Akhenaten and Nefertiti offering to the Aten. Akhenaten holds up two (hes?)-vases and Nefertiti holds two cups with incense (?). They are followed by a female fan-bearer., two men holding ostrich fans and then 4 more female fan-bearers. Underneath we see Tutu praying.

West Wall, North Side: Akhenaten and Nefertiti receive Tutu in front of the window of appearance. Akhenaten sits on a stool and his Khepresh crown is encircled with a row of uraei. Behind the king we see Nefertiti with at least two daughters on her lap. The inscriptions mention Meritaten and Ankhesenpaaten. The image of the Queen has been removed. In the register below the King and Queen we see the Queen's Sister Mutnodjemet with her two dwarfs, several fanbearers and the nurses of the Princesses.

West Wall, South Side: Tutu receives a promotion from the King. Tutu appears before the window of appearance. The image of the Queen has been removed, but above the missing rectangular region we see inscriptions mentioning the princesses Meritaten, Meketaten and Ankhesenpaaten.

Another scene shows Tutu receiving the congratulations of his friends.

 

Tomb of Mahu - Nr. 9

Name of the Aten: (Heka-Aten)|, etc. (i.e. later form)

Titles of Mahu: Chief of the Medjay (police) of Akhetaten

North Thickness, The Royal Family worshipping Aten.

Akhneaten, wearing the Khepresh crown is followed by Nefertiti wearing her blue crown and holding a sekhem scepter. She is followed byMeritaten.

North End Wall Stela: Akhenaten and Nefertiti worshipping.

Akhenaten stands before the altar with raised hands. Nefertiti, wearing the blue crown, stands behind Akhenaten. She seems to hold flowers in her hand. Meritaten accompanies the royal couple.

Back Wall, South Side: The royal Chariot leaving the temple.

Akhenaten and Nefertiti are shown riding a chariot together. In another scene the royal chariot is shown passing the sentries. Akhenaten and nefertiti are shown wearing their respective blue crowns and are accompanied by princess Meritaten.

South End Wall, False door: The royal family offering to the Aten.

Akhenaten and Nefertiti are shown in the lunette offering trays of food to the Aten. A princess, Meritaten most likely, stands behind them shaking a sistrum.

 

Tomb of Apy (Ipy?) - Nr. 10

Name of the Aten: (Hor-Aten)|, etc. (i.e. early form)

Titles of Ipy: King's scribe, the overseer of the large inner palace of the pharaoh, the steward. Apy is also known from Thebes. He came from a prominent Memphite family, and was related to the Vizier Ramose.

Entrance: The royal family making votive offerings to the Aten.

Akhenaten and Nefertiti are shown offering votive items - cartouches of the Aten flanked by small statue(s) - to the Aten. Meritaten, Meketaten and Ankhesenpaaten are shown behind their parents shaking sistra.

 

Tomb of Ramose  - Nr. 11

Name of the Aten: (??)|,

Titles of Ramose: Scribe of Recruits, General of the Lord of the Two Lands, the king's scribe, Steward of the house of Nebmaatre (Amenhotep III)

Entrance: The royal family offering to the Aten

Akhenaten and Nefertiti are shown with Princess Meritaten. Akhenaten holds an incense burner, while Nefertiti offers a container of ointment(?)

 

Tomb of Nakht(paaten) - Nr. 12

Name of the Aten: (??)|,

Titles of Nakhtpaaten: Hereditary prince, count, sealbearer, overseer of the city and vizier, overseer of the work projects in Akhet-Aten.

 

Tomb of Neferkheperhersekheper  - Nr. 13

Name of the Aten: (??)|, etc.

Titles of Neferkheperhersekheper: Mayor of Akhetaten

 

Tomb of May - Nr. 14

Name of the Aten: (Hor-Aten)|, etc. (i.e.early form)

Titles of May: The hereditary Prince and Count, the sealbearer of the king of Upper and Lower Egypt, the sole companion, the true king's scribe, General of the Lord of the Two Lands, Steward of the house of 'Pacifying the Aten', Scribe of Recruits, Steward of Waenre (Akhenaten) in Heliopolis, Overseer of the cattle of the house of Re in Heliopolis, Overseer of all works of the king, Fanbearer on the right hand of the king.

Royal Family worship the Aten.

Akhenaten offers up incense, while Nefertiti offers a jar. Akhneaten and Nefertiti are accompanied by three princesses. Meritaten and Meketaten are named as the two princesses in the lower register, The third princes depicted above them is most likely Ankhesenpaaten. All three are shown shaking a sistrum. Above the princesses we see the Queen's sister Mutnodjemet accompanied by her two dwarfs.

 

Tomb of Suty - Nr. 15

Name of the Aten: (??)|, etc.

Titles of Suty: Standard-bearer of the company of Neferkheprure-Waenre (Akhenaten)

  

Tomb of Sutau  - Nr. 19

Name of the Aten: (??)|, etc.

Titles of Sutau: Treasurer of the Lord of the Two Lands

The entrance would have included a scene showing the royal family at worship. The remains of this scene, traced in ink have now almost completely disappeared.

Anonymous  - Nr. 20

Name of the Aten: (??)|,

The lintel shows the royal family adoring the Aten. We see the same scene on the left and the right but in mirror image.  Akhenaten is shown on both sides wearing the khepresh crown. Nefertiti and her daughters were never carved. The inscriptions show that Nefertiti was supposed to follow her husband, followed by Meritaten, Meketaten and Akhesenpaaten. Behind the princesses we see the Queen's sister Mutnodjemet.

 

Anonymous  - Nr. 22

Name of the Aten: (??)|,

The lintel shows the royal family adoring the Aten. Akhenaten is shown wearing the khepresh crown. Nefertiti, wearing her blue crown, followed her husband, followed by three princesses, probablyMeritaten, Meketaten and Akhesenpaaten. Behind the princesses we see the Queen's sister Mutnodjemet.

Tomb of Any  - Nr. 23

Name of the Aten: (Heka-Aten)|, etc. (i.e. later form)

Titles of Any: True king's scribe, scribe of the offering table of the Lord of the Two Lands,  Scribe of the Aten's offering table on behalf of the Aten in the house of Aten in Akhet-Aten, Steward of the House of Aakheprure [Amenhotep II]

 

Tomb of Paatenemheb - Nr. 24

Name of the Aten: (??)|, etc.

Titles of Paatenemheb: King's scribe, General of the Lord of the Two Lands, Steward of the Lord of the Two Lands

Tomb of Aye - Nr 25

Name of the Aten: (Hor-Aten)|, etc. (i.e. early form)

Husband; different versions of his titles:

The favorite of the Good god, the fanbearer on the right side of the King, the confidant throughout the entire land, the true king's scribe, his beloved, the God's Father Aye.

The God's Father, the favorite of the Good god, the fanbearer on the right side of the King, the commander of all the horse of his Person, the true royal scribe, his beloved, Aye.

Wife; different versions of her titles:

The favorite of the good god, the nurse of the Great Royal Wife (Neferneferuaten - Nefertiti)| may she live forever continually, Tiye justified.

The favorite of the good god, the great nurse who nourished the goddess, the king's ornament, Tiye justified


Based on de Garis-Davies drawing, see also Lepsius drawing Abt III, Band 6, Bl. 106

On doorjambs: Mentions the King, Queen, Aye and Tiye.

Ceiling inscriptions: mentions the King. Queen, and Aye

East Thickness; upper register: Akhenaten, Nefertiti, the three eldest daughters sacrifice to the Aten and are followed by the Queen's Sister Mutnodjemet (shown in register above the princesses). Akhenaten wears the Khepresh Crown while Nefertiti wears an Atef-crown. Akhenaten and Nefertiti both hold a wand.

Titles of the Queen (Lepsius/Hay): The heiress, great in favor, lady of grace, sweer of love, Mistress of South and North, fair of face, gay with the two plumes, beloved of the living Aten, the Chief wife of the King whom (he) loves, Lady of the Two Lands, great of love, (Nefertiti)|, living forever and ever.

West thickness: Hymn of the Aten

North Wall; East Side: Reward Scene.

Aye and Tiye are shown before the window of appearances. Akhenaten is shown in a Khepresh crown and Nefertiti in her well-known blue crown (in this case decorated with three uraei. Meretaten, Meketaten and Ankhesenpaaten are shown in the window of appearances as well. The eldest two seem to be throwing rewards to Aye and Tiye, while Ankhesenpaaten stands on the pillow before Nefertiti and is caressing her chin. The royal figures appear nude in the scene but this may be due to the fact that the clothes were meant to be painted on.

To the left of the window of appearance we see the palace and part of the harem depicted. In some of the rooms we see harem girls playing music while guards (or servants?) are posted outside their apartments.


Statues:


Base from a statue group from the sunshade of Princess Meritaten.

i. first line: Long live the father (Hor-Aten)|, given life forever continually;

The King of Upper and Lower Egypt, The Lord of the Two Lands (Neferkheperure - Waenre)|, given life, son of Re who lives on Maat, Lord of Crowns , (Akhenaten)| , great in his lifetime.

King's bodily daughter, his beloved, Meritaten, born to the Great Royal Wife, his beloved, Mistress of the Two Lands (Neferneferuaten - Nefertiti)| may she live forever continually.

ii. second line: Great living Aten who is in jubilee, Lord of everything Aten encircles, lord of heaven, lord of earth in the sunshade of the King's bodily daughter, his beloved, Meritaten, born to the Great Royal Wife, his beloved, Mistress of the Two Lands (Neferneferuaten - Nefertiti)| may she live and be healthy forever continually in the "House of Rejoicing" of the Aten in the House of Aten in Akhet-Aten


Statue of Nefertiti from Amarna:

Long live the father
(Heka-Aten)|, given life forever continually; the Great Royal Wife, the lady of the palace, great of love in the House of Aten, the Lady of the Two Lands, (Neferneferuaten - Nefertiti)| may she live forever continually.

Statue base from Akhet-Aten, removed to Hermopolis.
I. One side:

Upper line:
the names of the Aten and Akhenaten.Lower line: King's bodily daughter, his beloved, Ankhesenpaaten, born to the Great Royal Wife (Neferneferuaten - Nefertiti)| may she live.
II. Other side:

Upper line:
the names of the Aten and Akhenaten.
Lower line:
King's bodily daughter, his beloved, Neferneferuaten-tasherit, born to the Great Royal Wife (Neferneferuaten - Nefertiti)| may she live.


Stela removed from Akhet-Aten to Hermopolis.
One side:
The King salutes the Aten while Nefertiti and Meritaten rattle sistra behind him.
Other side:
The King and Queen raise batons to dedicate offerings, while Meritaten shakes a sistrum.
Text is similar on both sides:

Besides the sun-disk:
(Hor-Aten)|, given life forever continually; great living Aten who is in jubilee, Lord of everything Aten encircles, lord of heaven, lord of earth residing in the "House of Rejoicing" in the House of Aten in Akhet-Aten.
By the King:
The Lord of the Two Lands (Neferkheperure - Waenre)|, given life, Lord of Crowns , (Akhenaten)| , great in his lifetime.
By the Queen:
the Great Royal Wife (Neferneferuaten - Nefertiti)| may she live forever continually.
By the Princess: King's bodily daughter, his beloved, Meritaten, born to the Great Royal Wife (Neferneferuaten - Nefertiti)| may she live forever continually.

Statue now in the Cairo Museum; pedestal only
Name of the Aten:
(Heka-Aten)|, [...] in the House of Aten in the [...].
Following Akhenaten's titles there is room for:
King's bodily daughter, his beloved, Ankhesenpaaten-tasherit, born to the King's Daughter Ankhesenpaaten, born to
the Great Royal Wife, (Neferneferuaten - Nefertiti)| may she live.


Statue base from the Faiyum; probably from Kom Medinet Gurob and originally from Akhet-Aten?
The Aten: .[Live] the father (Hor-Aten)|, given life forever continually; great living Aten who is in jubilee, Lord of everything Aten encircles, lord of heaven, lord of earth in the Mansion of the Aten in Akhet-Aten.
The King:
The King of Upper and Lower Egypt, who lives on Maat, The Lord of the Two Lands (Neferkheperure - Waenre)|, given life, the Son of Re who lives on Maat, lord of Diadems , (Akhenaten)| , long in his lifetime, continually in the favor of Aten.
The Queen:
Great Royal Wife, his beloved, Lady of the Two Lands (Neferneferuaten - Nefertiti)| may she live forever continually.
Two Princesses:
King's bodily daughter, his beloved, Meritaten, born to the Great Royal Wife (Neferneferuaten - Nefertiti)| may she live forever continually.
King's bodily daughter, his beloved, Meketaten, born to the
Great Royal Wife (Neferneferuaten - Nefertiti)| may she live forever continually.
King's bodily daughter, his beloved, Ankhesenpaaten, born to the
Great Royal Wife (Neferneferuaten - Nefertiti)| may she live forever continually.

 

 



Some images of this Queen




         
Petrie Museum            
Fragment of relief: siliceous limestone; Nefertiti wearing disk, horns and feathers, and uraeus;
Extreme style of portrait probably indicates a date early in the Amarna Period.
(Egypt Archive)



Petrie Museum: Fragment of an alabaster Stela showing Akhenaten (headless).
Followed by Nefertiti and Meritaten before an offering table with 3 jars, to which the hands to the Aten are extended.
(Egypt Archive)


 

Ashmolean Museum



           
Memphis, Palace of Merneptah     Composite Head



   

Trial Piece: Amarna           Wilbour Plaque (Amarna)



                                         

Louvre: Akhenaten and Nefertiti                          Older Nefertiti


 
Louvre: A body, possibly depicting Nefertiti, and a head, possibly depicting Nefertiti.


   

Dyad depicting Nefertiti and Akhenaten. Found in Thutmose's workshop.
More detailed images, descriptions and line drawings can be found at
The Amarna Research Foundation



Other


Relief with emplacements for inlays, probably from a stela, two registers with Amenhotep IV offering names of the Aten and censing to the sun disc, accompanied by Nefertiti, re-used as a pedestal for a sphinx of Merneptah, quartzite, temp. Amenhotep IV, in Philadelphia PA, The University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology

Fragment of head wearing khat-headdress, probably Queen Nefertiti, temp. Amenhotep IV, in Hamburg, Museum fur Kunst und Gewerbe, 1966.96.

Neferneferuaten Nefertiti (queen of Amenhotep IV), hand holding offering-table, calcite, temp. Amenhotep IV, in Hanover, Kestner-Museum, 1935.200.137.



Sources / Bibliography

Cyril Aldred , Akhenaten: King of Egypt Thames & Hudson; Rep edition (May 1991)

Norman De Garis Davies, with a foreword by Barry Kemp,
  • The rock tombs of el-Amarna, Parts I and II: Part 1 The tomb of Meryra & Part 2 The tombs of Panehesy and Meyra II, Egypt Exploration Society (2004)
  • The rock tombs of el-Amarna, Parts III and IV: Part 3 The tombs of Huya and Ahmes & Part 4 The tombs of Penthu, Mahu, and Others Egypt Exploration Society (2004)
  • The rock tombs of el-Amarna, Parts V and VI: Part 5 Smaller tombs and boundary stelae & Part 6 Tombs of Parennefer, Tutu and Ay, Egypt Exploration Society (2004)

William J. Murnane, Edmund S. Meltzer (Editor) , Texts from the Amarna Period in Egypt , Scholars Press (1995)

Joyce A. Tyldesley,  Nefertiti: Unlocking the Mystery Surrounding Egypt's Most Famous and Beautiful Queen Penguin (Non-Classics); New Ed edition (February 28, 2000)

Pharaohs of the Sun: Akhenaten - Nefertiti - Tutankhamen
by Boston Museum of Fine Arts (Corporate Author), Rita E. Freed (Editor), Yvonne J. Markowitz (Editor), Sue H. D'Auria (Editor)







Last edited: January 2007


Some of the illusttrations courtesy of  Jon Bodsworth  http://www.egyptarchive.co.uk/index.htm









Comments: email barta@slu.edu