Page by Anneke Bart
Kings and Queens
Seneferu, Khufu, Khafre, Menkaure, Djedefre, etc.
Kings named Mentuhotep and Intef
Amenemhet I - IV,
Tuthmosis I-IV, Akhenaten, Tutankhamen, Aye, Horemheb, etc.
Sety I-II, Ramesses I-II, Merenptah, Amenmesses, Tawosret.
Sethnakht, Ramesses III
Ramesses IV - XI
Cleopatra VII Philopator
Queens (D1-6)- Old Kingdom
Queens (D11-13) Middle Kingd.
Queens (D16-20)- New Kingdom
Queens (D21-29)- Late Period
Officials, Priesthood etc.
Viziers (New Kingdom)
High Priests of Amun
God's Wives of Amun
High Priests of Ptah
Viceroys of Nubia
Who's who of New Kingdom
inscriptions Queen Nefertiti.
Tombs at Amarna
Houses at Amarna
Valley of the Kings,
Valley of the Queens
Tombs at Abydos
Tombs at El Kab
Tombs in Aswan
Early dynastic Saqqara
New Kingdom Saqqara
The Unis Cemetary
Mastabas at the Giza Plateau
Giza Mastabas 1000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 2000 cemetary
Giza Mataba 2300 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 4000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 5000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 6000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 7000 cemetary
Horus name: Kanakht Merymaat
Parents and family: Ramesses II was the son of King
Seti I and Queen
Mut-Tuy. Ramesses is shown on a stela behind Seti I as the
had an older sister named Tia. Tia married a treasurer who was also
Tia, and this couple was buried in the necropolis of Saqqara, close to
tomb of Horemheb. Ramesses likely had another sister named Henutmire,
she became one of the wives of Ramesses.
Tia and Tia shown sailing to Abydos.
Titles: Great of Praises (wrt-hzwt), Sweet of Love (bnrt-mrwt), Lady of Grace (nbt-im3t), Great King’s Wife (hmt-niswt-wrt), Great King’s Wife, his beloved (hmt-niswt-wrt meryt.f), Lady of The Two Lands (nbt-t3wy), Lady of all Lands (hnwt-t3w-nbw), Wife of the Strong Bull (hmt-k3-nxt), God’s Wife (hmt-ntr), Mistress of Upper and Lower Egypt (hnwt-Shm’w-mhw)
Principal queen during the early years of the reign of Ramesses II. She appears in scenes at the Ramesseum and apparently had a chapel dedicated to her (joint with the Queen-Mother Tuya). Ramesses II had a temple at Abu Simbel dedicated to Nefertari and Hathor. Nefertari is depicted twice on the facade of this smaller temple. Her images are the same size as the images of her husband. She died sometime after year 24 and was buried in QV 66 in the Valley of the Queens. She was the mother of the Princes Amen-hir-kepesh-ef, Prehirwenemef, Meryatum, Meryre and the Princesses Merytamen and Henuttawy. Sometimes thought to be the mother of the Princesses Bakmut, Nefertari and Nebettawy as well.
2. Isetnofret (I) ("Isis,
Ramesses with his second wife Isetnofret, their daughter Bint'Anath and son Khaemwaset.
3. Bint-anath, ("Daughter of Anath")
Bint-Anath as show in her tomb in the Queen's Valley. On the right the daughter of Bint-Anath. (After a drawing by Lepsius)
Bint-Anath (left) and Merytamun (right) in Luxor.
(Photographs by Sesen)
Princess-Queen Merytamen as depicted in her tomb in the Valley of the Queens. (L)
(Based on a drawing by Lepsius) and in the temple at Akhmin (R)
(Photograph by Sesen)
5. Nebettawy. ("Lady
of the Two Lands")
Princess-Queen Nebettawy depicted in her tomb in the Valley of the Queens.
(Based on a drawing by Lepsius)
6. Maathor-neferure, ("One who sees Horus, Beauty of Re")
Maathorneferure and her father Hattusilis in
on a drawing by Lepsius)
7. Henutmire. ("The
Lady is like Re")
Henutmire on a statue of Ramesses II (now in the Alexandria museum)
8. [Second Hittite Princess] - no Egyptian name survives, although in later records she is referred to as Bentresh. A younger sister of Maathorneferure. According to Tyldesley Ramesses married this second daughter 10 years after the marriage to Maathorneferure, i.e. in year 44.
9. Sutererey who was the mother of Prince Ramses-Siptah.
Pocession of Sons at the Ramesseum below scenes showing Ramesses before Amun, Mut and Ptah.
As well as Ramesses in the company of Horus(?) and Thoth.
(Photo by Sesen)
2. Ramsesses: ("Born of Re") Fanbearer on the
King’s Right hand, Royal Scribe, Generalissimo (of the Lord of the Two
Lands), Bodily King’s Son, beloved of him Son of Ramses and
Isetnofret. Heir to the throne from year 25 to year 50. Buried in KV5.
3. Prehirwenemef: ("Re is with his strong arm")
Fanbearer on the
King’s Right hand, 1st Lieutenant of the Army, King’s Son of his Body,
the Horses, First charioteer of His Majesty. Son of Ramses and
Nefertari. Depicted in the triumph that followed Kadesh. On a Karnak
there is mention of a woman named Wadjyt-kha’ti.
Amenhirkhepeshef, Ramesses, and Prehirwenemef at the Ramesseum
(Photo by Sesen)
4. Khaemwaset: ("Appearing in Thebes") King’s Son of
Body, Sem-Priest of Ptah, The Sem-priest controlling all clothing, High
Priest of Ptah in Memphis, Executive at the Head of the Two Lands. Son
of Ramses and
Isetnofret. Crown Prince from year 50 to 55. One of the best known sons
of Ramses. Known as one of the first archeologists. He was famous in
and later featured as the hero Setne-Khaemwese in a cycle of
written in the Late/Ptolemaic times. From documents and inscriptions
Khaemwaset is known to have had two sons: Prince Ramesses (a sem-priest
of Ptah) and Prince Hori (later High Priest of Ptah) and a daughter
Isetnofret. The name of Khaemwaset's wife (or wives) is not known to
His grand-son Hori, son of HPM Hori later served as Vizier well into
5. Mentu-hirkepeshef: ("Montu is with his strong arm")
his Body, Master of the Horses, First Charioteer of his father, Royal
Scribe. Also known from a Statue from Bubastis. He is called
Mentu-hir-wenemef in an inscription from Luxor.
Khaemwaset and Mentuhirkhepeshef at Luxor
6. Nebenkhurru: King’s Son of his
Body, Troopcommander. Prince Nebenkhurru was present at the battle of
Kadesh and at a battle in the North (Qode).
7. Meryamun: ("Beloved of Amun") King’s Son of his
Body. Also known as Ramesses-Meryamun. Present during the triumph after
of Qadesh, and the siege of the Syrian city of Dapur in year 10. Buried
in KV5, where remains of his canopic jars were found.
Sons 3 to 7 at the Ramesseum (from right to left).
I.e. Prehirwenemef, Khaemwaset, Mentuhirkhepeshef, Nebenkhurru, and Meryamun.
(Photo by Sesen)
8. Amenemwia / Sethemwia: ("Amun / Seth in the divine barque") King’s Son of his Body. Present at the battle of Kadesh, siege of Dapur in year 10 and the siege of Qode (in Naharina in the North). Named Sethemwia at the town gate of Amara (in Nubia).
9. Sety: King’s Son of his Body, First Officer of his father. His name is spelled Sutiy in his funerary equipment. Present during the triumph after the battle of Qadesh, and the siege of the Syrian city of Dapur in year 10. Buried in KV5, where two of his canopic jars were found. His tomb was inspected in year 53.
10. Setepenre: ("Chosen of Re") King’s Son of his Body. Present at the siege of the city of Darfur (yr.10). A doorway from Qantir (later usurped by son no. 39 Ramesses-Sethemnakht) lists Setepenre as the hereditary prince and count, real King’s son, beloved of him.
11. Meryre I: ("Beloved of Re") King’s Son of his Body. Son of Ramses and Nefertari. Present at the Battle of Kadesh (year 5) and the Siege of Qode (in Naharina). Depicted twice on the façade of the Hathor temple in Abu Simbel.
12. Horhirwenemef: ("Horus is strong with his arm") King’s Son of his Body. Shown presenting prisoners to his father after the Battle of Kadesh. He was present at the siege of Qode (in Naharina), as depicted in Luxor.
13. Merenptah: ("Beloved of Ptah") Hereditary Prince, King’s Son of his Body, Eldest King’s Son, Executive at the Head of the Two Lands., Generelissimo, Royal Scibe, Superintendant of the Seal. On a naophorous kneeling statue he is listed as Director for the Gods, Heir of Geb, Controller and Superintendant of his throne, Royal Scribe and Generalissimo, Senior King’s Son Ramessses-Merneptah. Son of Ramses and Isetnofret. Heir to the throne and for all intent and purpose regent during the last 10 years of his father’s reign. He became Generalissimo after year 50 and Heir to the throne in year 55
14. Amenhotep: ("Amun is pleased") King’s Son of his Body. Shown running and presenting prisoners to his father in a scene in Luxor.
15. Itamun: (or Ioti-Amun): ("Amun is the father") King’s Son of his Body. A letter from The superintendant of Cattle, Sunero to prince Khaemwaset mentions Prince Ioti-Amun. Khaemwaset had given an order: “Let search be made of these retainers the King’s Son Ioti-Amun, who are in the district of Ninsu (Heracleopolis), and they shall be made to name their companions (accomplices?)”. Further on in the letter Sunero writes: “Now, I reached the district of Ninsu and found the retainer of the General, Piay, along with Qenhirkhopshef, retainer of the King’s Son, Ioti-Amun, and they brought them back, 6 men of them, who had been in the prison of the son of the Chief of the Treasury. They pressed on southward to seize the others.”
16. Meryatum: ("Beloved of Atum") King’s Son of his
Priest of Re in Heliopolis. There are statues of Meryatum in Berlis
list his titles as: Hereditary Prince and Count, Chief of the Seers in
mansion of the Phoenix (Bennu-bird), bodily King’s Son, beloved of him,
of Seers. Other titles mentioned: Setem-priest in the Horizon of
Eyes of the King at the head of his Two Lands, pure of hands in the
of Re, Charioteer of his father the victorious King, Horus Falcon,
17. Neb(en)taneb: ("Lord of all lands") King’s Son of his Body
18. Meryre II: ("Beloved of Re") King’s Son of his Body
19. Amenemopet: ("Amun with the Opet feast") King’s Son of his Body
20. Senakhtenamen: ("Amun gives him strength") King’s Son of his Body. Mentioned in Abydos.
21. Ramesses-Merenre: ("Born of Re, beloved of Re") King’s Son of his Body
22. Thutmose: ("Born of Thoth") King’s Son of his Body
23. Simentu : ("Son of Montu") King’s Son of his Body. He married Iryet, the daughter of Benanath, A Syrian ship’s captain. An ostracon records: Year 42, 4th month of Peret, day (1), of the King of S & N Egypt, Uimare Setepenre, Son of Re, Ramesses II, god, Ruler of Heliopolis, LPH. Iryt, daughter of the ship’s captain Ben-‘Anath, the wife of the King’s Son Si-Montu who is in charge of the (irrigated) terrain of the Estate of Usimare Stepenre, LPH in Memphis.
24. Mentuemwaset: ("Montu in Thebes") King’s Son of his Body
25. Siamun: ("Son of Amun") King’s Son of his Body
26. Ramesses-Siptah: ("Born of Re, Son of Ptah") King’s
his Body. Probably the son of Sutererey. Mentioned on a statue in the
On another relief in the Louvre, a Lady follows a prince. The prince
is identified as King’s Son Ramesses Siptah and his mother as the Royal
Further sons include:
A procession of princesses from Abu Simbel.
1. Bintanath. ("Daughter of Anath") Eldest daughter of Ramesses and Queen Isetnofret. The first of the princesses to be raised to the position of great royal wife. Possibly as early as year 22. Bintanath is depicted in the list of princesses at Abu Simbel. She is depicted as a queen behind her mother and father on a stela from Gebel el Silsila. She is also depicted on another stela from upper egypt. In this second inscription she is depicted in the second register behind her brother Prince Ramesses and in front of her brother Merenptah. Ramesses II, Isetnofret, and Prince Khaemwaset are depicted in the top register. Bintanath was buried in QV71. In the tomb she is depicted with a daughter. See above.
2. Bakmut, ("Handmaiden of Mut") Bodily King’s Daughter, his beloved. Second daughter depicted at Abu Simbel. Possibly a daughter of Ramesses II and Queen Nefertari? Not much more is known about her.
3. Nefertari II, ("Beautiful Companion") Bodily King’s Daughter, his beloved, Chantress of Amun. Third daughter depicted at Abu Simbel and 7th at Luxor. Probably a daughter of Ramesses II and Queen Nefertari. It is possible that this princess is identical to the Nefertari who is mentioned as the wife of Prince Amen-hir-kepesh-ef and the mother of Sety.
4. Merytamun, ("Beloved of Amun")Bodily King’s Daughter, his beloved, King’s Daughter, Great Royal Wife, Lady of Both Lands, a daughter of Ramesses II and Queen Nefertari. Raised to position of great royal wife in or near year 24 when she is depicted in an inscription of the Viceroy of Nubia, Heqanakht. Merytamun is shown officiating for her mother. Large statues of Queen Merytamen are known from Akhmin and the Ramesseum. Merytamun was buried in QV68.
5. Nebettawy, ("Lady of the Two Lands")Bodily King’s Daughter, his beloved. The third of the daughters of Ramesses II to be raised to the position of great royal wife. Not much is known about her. Nebettawy appears in the list of princesses at Abu Simbel and was buried in QV60.
6. Isetnofret II, ("Isis, the Beautiful") Bodily King’s Daughter, his beloved, Chantress of Isis. Probably a daughter of Ramesses II and Queen Isetnofret. This princess may have been married to Prince Merenptah and may be the Queen depicted alongside Merenptah at Gebel el-Silsila. If so, then she is the mother of prince Seti-Merneptah. Although it is also possible that this queen of Merenptah is actually his niece Isetnofret III, the daughter of his brother Khaemwaset.7. Henuttawy, ("Mistress of the Two Lands") Bodily King’s Daughter, his beloved. She appears in the list of princesses at Abu Simbel.
8. Werenro(or Werel), Bodily King’s Daughter, his beloved, Chantress of Amun. She appears in the list of princesses at Abu Simbel.
9. Nedjemmut, ("Sweet is Mut") Bodily King’s Daughter, his beloved. She appears in the list of princesses at Abu Simbel.
Futher daughters include:
From Medinet Habu:
We also have some information about the officials who served
Ramses. Here is a partial list of people who were responsible for
country running. The officials are divided into army, government,
etc. Some of the sons of Ramses served in official capacities and have
been listed again.
The Sons of Ramesses:
Kaemweset, Fan-bearer of the Lord of the Two Lands, and wife Renpeten(t)opet, Royal sistrum-player of (the statue of) Usermaetre-setepenre (Ramesses II) Montu in the Two Lands
Paheripedjet , Steward of the Lord of the Two Lands
Yupa, Steward, Overseer of works, Overseer of horses of the Lord of the Two Lands,etc., son of Iurokhy
Son of Nebneteru called Tenri, High Priest of Amun and sem-priest in the temple of Ptah and Merytre, Chief of the Harim of Amun. Grandson of Aniy and Naia (parents of Merytre) Brother: Tatia, Steward of the temple of Maat.
Paser had monuments in Thebes (tomb), Pi-Ramesse, Tanis, Memphis, Abydos, Medamud.
Hatiay Continued from the reign of Seti I. Hatiay is known from an inscription at Giza. He is shown with Seti I adoring the Sphinx.
Nebamun, Vizier. Son of Ramose and Sheritre. Listed as a 'brother' on a monument of the High priest of Osiris Wennufer. This means he was
likely related to Rahotep I, and possibly (more distantly) to Rahotep II.
(Pa)Rahotep (I) Vizier (of the North) and said to be the son of the high priest of Osiris, To and Maianuy. Mentioned on a monument of the High Priest of Osiris, Wennufer as a 'brother' (could be a cousin instead)
Ramessu Mentioned by Kitchen.
(Pa)Rahotep (II) Fanbearer, High Priest of Re, High Priest of Ptah and Vizier (of the North). He was the son of the High Priest of Ptah Pahemneter. Listed as 'brother' of the High Priest of Anhur Minmose. Married to Huneroy, who was Chief of the Harim of Herishef, who was the daughter of Buia called Katnesu, Chief of the Harem of Anhur. Rahotep (II) may also have been a (distant) relative of Wennufer the High Priest of Osiris.
Nehy Vizier of the South. Mentioned by Kitchen.
Tuthmose Vizier of the South. Mentioned by Kitchen.
Khay Vizier of the South. Son of Troop Commander Hai and Chantress of Amun Nubemniut. His wife was called Yam.
Neferrompet, Vizier and High Priest of Ptah. Son of Neferronpet and Qafriati. Married to the Lady Mutpipu. His son Bakenptah was a God's Father. He seems to have had at least four daughters: Inuhayet, Taweret'khati, Reset, and Henutmeter.Amenmose Mayor of Thebes
Viceroy of Nubia
Heqanakht : Reign of Ramses II. Year 8-24 of Ramesses' reign? Present at the dedication of the temple at Abu Simbel in year 24.
Huy: He was also Mayor of Tjarw (Pi-Ramses) and Messenger to Hatti. Reign of Ramses II
Setau: Middle of the reign of Ramses II; The granite lid of his sarcophagus is in the British Museum. It probably comes from his tomb in Thebes TT289. His wife was Nefertmut, Songstress of Nekhbet, and his mother was named An, a Songstress of Amun,
Paser II: End of the reign of Ramses II; Son of the First Prophet of Min and Isis named Minmose.
Sety , Overseer of the treasury of the Lord of the Two Lands.
Siesi : Overseer of the two granaries of Upper and Lower Egypt, General, etc.
Tia and Tia, Overseer of the Treasury, Fanbearer on the right of the king, etc, (husband) and the King's Noble Sister, Songstress of Amun, Chief of the temple muscicians of Pre (wife).Tia (the wife) was a sister of Ramses II. She was the daughter of Seti I and Queen Tuy.Daughters: Mutmetjennefer and an unnamed girl.
Tjuneroy, Overseer of works on all monuments of the King, royal scribe, etc. Father: Paser (I) (Steward of the Temple of Amun), Wife: NashaytBrother: Paser (II) (Overseer of the builders), Sister: Iineferty.The location of Tjuneroy's tomb is now lost, but slabs from his tomb are on display in Cairo, and his Canopic jars are in the Brooklyn Museum (New York).
Urihiya, High Steward, Real King's Scribe, GenerallisimoWive(s): Djama, Tuy(a), Chantress of Amun.
Urihiya is known to have had at least 3 sons:Pehefemnufer, Nebnehehiabsu, Yupa.
High Priests of Amun
Nebneteru Tenry (Chief Prophet of Amun) and Merytre
(Chief of the Harem of Amun). Known from TT 106. This is the tomb of
Paser, Governor of the Town and Vizier , Temp Sety I - Ramses II Wife
of Paser: Tiy (Chief of the Harem of Amun)
Nebwenenef, High priest of Amun, Temp Rameses II. TT
157. Wife: Takhat (Chief of the Harem of Amun, Songstress of Isis)
Bekenkhons (I), High priest of Amun, Temp. Ramesses II. (TT35). Parents: Roma (First and Second Prophet of Amun) and Roma (Singer of Amun). Wife: Mertesger (Chief of the Harem of Amun)
Unnefer (Wennefer) : temp Rameses II. Known from a family statue (in Copenhagen) dedicated to him by his son Ameneminet (Head of the Bow, Overseer of Works on all the monuments of Rameses II, Chief of the Medjay). Father of Unnefer is Minhotep, mother Maya. This was a particularily powerful family.
Paser: temp Rameses II. From a Griffith Institute statue.
Rama(ray), high priest of Amun, Rameses II - Merenptah.
TT 283. Wife: Tamut (name in niche in court), Tabest (name on stela in
Museum in Leiden) On the stela Ramaray is given the titles: The Prince
and Count, the God's Father, clean of hands, Priest of Kamutef,
Overseer of the prophets of all the gods, Third Prophet of Amun, Second
Prophet of Amun, First Prophet of Amun
High Priests of Ptah
Huy: reign of Ramesses II. Possibly from year 2. Shown in year 16 officiating over the burial of an Apis bull with Khaemwaset and Ramses II.
Pahemnetjer: The sarcophagus of Pahemnetjer is in the British Museum even though the location of his tomb is not known. It’s presumed to be in Saqqara. Probably followed Huy. Father of both Didia and Parahotep the younger. Ca year 20 of Ramses II
Didia: Elder son of Pahemnetjer. Brother of the Vizier Parahotep the younger. Ca yr 35 of reign of Ramesses II
Khaemwaset: King’s Son of his Body, Executive at the Head of the Two Lands. Son of Ramses and Isetnofret. Crown Prince from year 50 to 55. One of the best known sons of Ramses. Known as one of the first archeologists. He was famous in ancient Egypt, and later featured as the hero Setne-Khaemwese in a cycle of stories written in the Late/Ptolemaic times. Khaemwaset became Sem Priest of Ptah in ca year 16 and High Priest of Ptah in year 45.
Ramesses - Son of Prince Khaemwaset, brother of Hori -served as Sem Priest of Ptah.
Parahotep(II), son of Pahemnetjer. After serving as Vizier, Parahotep also became High Priest of Ptah and High Priest of Re in ca year 55 of Ramses II.
Neferronpet. In year 60 of the reign of Ramses. Likely the same Neferronpet who was made Southern Vizier in year 50.
Hori: Son of Prince Khaemwaset. Became HPM in year 65/66 of the reign of Ramses. He continued to serve under his uncle Merneptah.
Other dignitaries in the temple of Ptah
High Priests of Re
Meryatum: High Priest of Re in Heliopolis, King’s Son of his Body, Son of Ramses and Nefertari. Apparently visited the Sinai during the second decade of his father’s reign. He served as high priest for about 20 years. He was either buried in the Queens Valley or in KV5.
RamesseumAmenemonet , Chief steward in the Ramesseum in the domain of Amun, etc.
Hati , Scribe of the temple in the domain of Onuris, Steward in the temple of Rameses- meryamun (Ramesses II)
Hormose, TT-C7 Head guard of the treasury in the Ramesseum, Temp. Ramesses II Wife: Mutemwia
Khnumemheb, TT26, overseer of the treasury of the Ramesseum in the estate of Amun, Wife: Mery-Isis.
Penre , Overseer of works in the Ramesseum in the domain of Amun, Chief of the Medjay
Ptahemwia, Treasurer of the Ramesseum in Memphis, Noble, Sealbearer, Sole Companion,
Yupa, Steward in the Ramesseum in the domain of Amun, High Steward of the Lord of the Two Lands, Granary Supervisor. He married Nuhety and his son Hatiay became Chief of Works and Chief of the Medjay.
OtherHori , Prophet of Harendotes, son of Unnufer Wnn-nfr , First prophet of Osiris.
Khensmosi, wab-priest in front of Amun, Overseer of works on all monuments of Amun, and wife Merytmut, Songstress of Amun.
Minmose Overseer of prophets of all the gods of Ta-wer (Abydos), First prophet of Onuris, etc., son of Hori (Hor), First prophet of Onuris, and Inty.
Panehesi , Head of the songstresses of the altar of Amun, Prophet of Amenophis (I) (TT16), son of Nuy , Songstress of Amun, and wife Ternute, Songstress of Amun at Karnak
Yuyu, First prophet of Osiris, etc., son of Unnufer, First prophet of Osiris, and Ty, Songstress of Osiris, Songstress of Isis
Bibliography / Suggested Reading
1.Breasted, J.H. Ancient Records of Egypt, Vol3 Chicago 1906 (reprinted in 2001)
2. Dodson A. and Hilton D. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, London 2004
3. Kitchen, K.A. Ramesside Inscriptions: Notes and Comments (Vol 2), Blackwell Publishers (1997)
4. Kitchen, K.A. Ramesside Inscriptions: Ramesses II, His Contemporaries (Ramesside Inscriptions, Translations, Vol III), Blackwell Publishers (2000)
5. Kitchen, K.A. Pharaoh Triumphant: The Life and Times of Ramesses II, King of Egypt (1983)
6. Jaromir Malek, Diana Magee and Elizabeth Miles: Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Statues, Reliefs and PaintingsVolume VIII: Objects of Provenance Not Known: Statues (Published online by the Griffith Institute)
7. Tyldesley, J. Ramesses: Egypt's Greatest Pharaoh, Penguin Books 2001
8. University College London: http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/chronology/ramsesii.html
9. Theban Mapping project page on KV7, tomb of Ramesses II: http://www.kv5.com/sites/browse_tomb_821.html
10. Theban Mapping project page on KV5, tomb of the sons of Ramesses II: http://www.kv5.com/sites/browse_tomb_819.html
Last edited: October 2007
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