Ancient Egypt

         

Page by Anneke Bart





Kings and Queens

4th dynasty
Seneferu, Khufu, Khafre, Menkaure, Djedefre, etc.

11th dynasty
Kings named Mentuhotep and Intef

12th dynasty
Amenemhet I - IV,
Senusret I-III


18th dynasty
Amenhotep I-IV,
Tuthmosis I-IV, Akhenaten, Tutankhamen, Aye, Horemheb, etc.


19th dynasty
Sety I-II, Ramesses I-II, Merenptah, Amenmesses, Tawosret.

20th dynasty

Sethnakht, Ramesses III
Ramesses IV - XI




Cleopatra VII Philopator

Queens (D1-6)- Old Kingdom
Queens (D11-13) Middle Kingd.
Queens (D16-20)- New Kingdom
Queens (D21-29)- Late Period




Officials, Priesthood etc.
Viziers (New Kingdom)
High Priests of Amun
God's Wives of Amun
High Priests of Ptah
Viceroys of Nubia
Who's who of New Kingdom


Amarna Period
Akhenaten
Queen Nefertiti
inscriptions Queen Nefertiti.
Queen Kiya

Smenkhare
Tutankhamen
Tombs at Amarna
Houses at Amarna

Tombs:
Valley of the Kings,
Valley of the Queens
Theban Tombs,
Tombs at Abydos
Tombs at El Kab
Tombs in Aswan
Early dynastic Saqqara
New Kingdom Saqqara
The Unis Cemetary

Mastabas at the Giza Plateau
Giza Mastabas 1000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 2000 cemetary
Giza Mataba 2300 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 4000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 5000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 6000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 7000 cemetary

Mummy Caches
Tomb DB320
Tomb KV35


The Viceroy of Kush


The viceroy of Kush was known as the 'King's Son of Kush' (in this case, the word 'son' means that he is important, not that he is the actual son of the pharaoh).
He was also in charge of controlling the valuable gold mines in Nubia, and was known as the 'Overseer of the Gold Lands of the Lord of the Two Lands'.

Ahmose called Si-tayit - One of the earliest Viceroys. Served under Ahmose and Amenhotep I.
Si-tayit's son Ahmose called Turo would later serve as King's Son of Kush. His grandson Ahmose called Patjenna would continue to serve - but not as Viceroy of Kush.
Patjenna is known from a statue now in the BMFA (see link to pdf about statue about Patjenna naming Ahmose Si-tayit)
The Cambridge Ancient History. By I. E. S. Edwards, Cambridge University Press (p299 and 348).

Ahmose called Turo - Served under Amenhotep I and Tuthmosis I.
Son of Ahmose Si-tayit. Ahmose Turo's son Ahmose Patjenna would continue to serve during the reigns of Hatshepsut and Tuthmosis III. 
A coronation decree exists recording the accession of Tuthmosis I. This unique document is a royal decree issued on the king's coronation day to the viceroy of Nubia, Thure, informing him of the king's accession, fixing the full titulary, the royal name to be used in offering oblations, and the royal name to be used in the oath.
"Behold, there is brought to thee this [commanded of the king in order to inform thee that my majesty has appeared as King of Upper and Lower Egypt upon the Horus-throne of the living, without his like forever. Make my titulary as follows:
Horus :  "Mighty Bull, Beloved of Maat;"
Favorite of the Two Goddesses: "Shining in the Serpent-diadem, Great in Strength;"
Golden Horus:  "Goodly in Years, Making Hearts Live;"
King of Upper and Lower Egypt: "Aakheperkare;"
Son of Re: "[Thutmose], Living forever, and ever."
(Breasted)
Turo (Thuwre) served under Ahmose as Commander of Buhen. Served as King's Son (of the Southern Region) under Amenhotep I (inscriptions in Semneh, Uronarti). Served under Tuthmosis I according to inscriptions dating to year 1 and 3. Turo is mentioned in an inscription at West-Silsileh belonging to the vizier User. This inscription dates to the reign of Hatshepsut. This may be a posthumous mention of the Viceroy. It's possible there were family connections between Ture and User; Turo is shown leading Vizier Aa'methu's daughters in procession. (Aa'methu was User's father).
The Viceroys of Ethiopia by George A. Reisner The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 6, No. 1. (Jan., 1920), pp. 28-55.

Seni: Served as Viceroy under Tuthmosis I - Tuthmosis II
Under Ahmose Seni served as Overseer of [...] as recorded at the temple at Semneh. Under Amenhotep I, Seni served as Overseer of the Granary of Amun and Overseer of Works in Karnak (All recorded at Semneh). Some time after year 3 of Tuthmosis I, Seni was made King's Son. At the temple of Kummeh Seni is given the titles of Overseer of the Granary of Amun, King's Son, Overseer of the Southern Lands. This inscrition dates to the Reign of Tuthmosis II. In another undated inscription from Kummeh Seni is named Viceroy of Nubia. Seni may have served as Viceroy for as many as 36 years.
The Viceroys of Ethiopia by George A. Reisner The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 6, No. 1. (Jan., 1920), pp. 28-55.

???Inebni: Reign of Hatshepsut.
Not certain if Inebni served as Viceroy. He did hold the title of Commander of the Bowmen. It is interesting that on a statue of his Inebni (Enebni) refers to Thutmosis III as Hatshepsut’s  brother [Breasted] There’s a statue of an Inebny in the British Museum who is recorded as being commander of bowmen and overseer of the king's weapons. It was 'made by the favour' of the joint sovereigns Hatshepsut (1479-1457 BC) and Thutmose III (1479-1425 BC), who ruled together for a time. However, Hatshepsut's name has subsequently been erased.

Amen-em-nekhu: Hatshepsut.
According to Pammiger, sometime after year 2 of Hatshepsut/Tuthmosis III, Seni retired and was succeeded by Amen-em-nekhu, a confidant of Hatshepsut. After Hatshepsut's death, in year 23 Amenemnekhu was replaced by Nehi, a confidant of Tuthmosis III.

Nehi: Tuthmosis III.
Nehy was commanded to see to the renewal of the offerings installed by Sesostris III for the gods Dedun and Khnum at the Temple of Semna. Nehi is attested at Buhen, Sai Island and Semneh. Some cunfusion originally existed due to some erasures of names. Reisner originally dated Nehi from ca year 2 of Tuthmosis III to almost the end of his reign. The earlier inscriptions probably belong to Amenemnekhu or even Inebni. Nehi held the titles Hereditary Prince, royal sealbearer, Sole Companion, King's Son, Overseer of the Southern Lands, First royal herald, etc.
Nehi's sarcophagus was in Berlin in the early 20th century. A pyramidion made its way to Florence, and a wooden shabti was found by Petrie behind the Ramesseum.
The Viceroys of Ethiopia by George A. Reisner The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 6, No. 1. (Jan., 1920), pp. 28-55.


Nehi depicted at Buhen
(From:
Buhen, By David Randall-MacIver, Leonard Woolley. Via Google Books)

User-Satet: Amenhotep II.
Henuttawy, the wife of Usersatet was a nurse of Amenhotep II.
Son of Si-Amun and Nenunhermentes (?). Father of Senynefer, chamberlain at Thebes and wab-priest. Usersatet appears on a shrine in Ibrahim and is mentioned in Sehel and on a stela from Buhen. Usersatet held the titles Hereditary Prince, royal sealbearer, Sole Companion, King's Son, Overseer of the Southern Lands, etc.
The Viceroys of Ethiopia by George A. Reisner The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 6, No. 1. (Jan., 1920), pp. 28-55.

Amenhotep, probably time of Tuthmosis IV and early years of Amenhotep III.
Known from a single inscription at Sehel. It is possible that an ushabti in the Birmingham museum belongs to this Viceroy, although there is a possibility that the ushabti belongs to an earlier Viceroy of the same name.
Other titles: Overseer of the cattle of Amun, Director of works in South and North, Head of the stable of His Majesty.
(An Ushabti of the Viceroy of Kush Amenhotep, by Philip J. Watson The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology © 1991)


Merymose: Amenhotep III;
Buried in TT383. Viceroy of Nubia, also referred to as King's Son of Kush. His sarcophagus is in the British museum.
Shown i
n a statue in Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Ägyptisch-Orientalische Sammlung, ÄS 36. (Probably from Asyû or Manqabâd.) http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/s14.html
Titles: King's son, overseer of the Southern Lands, overseer of the Gold Lands of Amun, King's scribe, Overseer of king's scribes, Overseer of the treasury, Steward of the peasantry (?)
People associated with Merymose:
Amenemopet, “Scribe of the letters of the king's son"
Huwy, “Scribe of the letters of the king's son"
Nakhtu, Servant of the King’s Son”
The Viceroys of Ethiopia (II) by George A. Reisner The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 6, No. 1. (Jan., 1920), pp. 73-88.


Merymose at Konosso
From: Lepsius Abt 3, Band 5, Plate 82

Tuthmose - Akhenaten.
In year 12 of Akhenaten Tuthmose was ordered to put down a rebellion by some of the Nubians.
Titles: King’s Son of Kush, [overseer of the Gold Lands] of Amun, Overseer of rnasons (?).
The Viceroys of Ethiopia (II) by George A. Reisner The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 6, No. 1. (Jan., 1920), pp. 73-88.


Amenhotep called Huy:  Akhenaten - Tutankhamen;
Married to Taemwadjsy, chief of the harem of Amun and of the Harem of Nebkheperure (Tutankhamun).
Buried in TT 40 located in Qurnet Murrai. In the tomb there is reference to a Temple named "Satisfying the Gods" in Nubia. Huy is shown being greeted there by Khay, High Priest of Nebkehperure (Tutankhamen), Penne, Deputy of the fortress of Nebkheperure (Tutankhamen), Huy, the Mayor, and  Mermose, (his brother) the second prophet of Nebkheperure. Taemwadjsy was Chief of the Harem of Nebkheperure (Chief of the female attendants of the temple) at this temple.
http://www.osirisnet.net/tombes/nobles/houy/e_houy.htm

Titles of Huy: Scribe of the letters of the viceroy, Merymose. King's scribe, Mery-netjer priest, King's messenger to every land.
Peopple associated with Huy:
Harnufer, " Scribe of the gold-accounts of the king's son "
Kna, "Scribe of the king's son "
[…]. “Captain of the rowers of the King’s Son”
[…], “Overseer of the Cattle”
The Viceroys of Ethiopia (II) by George A. Reisner The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 6, No. 1. (Jan., 1920), pp. 73-88.

Paser(I): Time of Aye and Horemheb. Son of Amenhotep called Huy and Taemwadjsy.
Titles: Overseer of the Gold Lands of Amun, King’s Son of Kush, overseer of the Southern Lands. Overseer of the Lands of Amun in Ta-Set, Overseer of the Gold Lands. King's scribe.
The Viceroys of Ethiopia (II) by George A. Reisner The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 6, No. 1. (Jan., 1920), pp. 73-88.

Amenemopet: Time of Seti I. Son of  Paser and grandson of Amenhotep-Huy and Taemwadjsy.
Mentioned in the temple at Beit el Wali. Amenmopet also has the title First charioteer of His Majesty
The Viceroys of Ethiopia (II) by George A. Reisner The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 6, No. 1. (Jan., 1920), pp. 73-88.


Amenemipet as depicted in Beit el Wali.
See Lepsius Denkmaler Abt 3, Band 7, Blatt 176

Iuni (Yuni):  Started his career during the reign of Sety I. Became Viceroy of Kush after Amenemope(t) under Ramesses II.
Mentioned at Abu Simbel. Served as Head of the-stable-of-Sethy-I, Charioteer of His Majesty, Chief of the Medjay before becoming Viceroy.
The Viceroys of Ethiopia (II) by George A. Reisner The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 6, No. 1. (Jan., 1920), pp. 73-88.

 
          Viceroy before Sety I (Merenptah). Possibly Iuny?                         Viceroy Iuny at Abu Simbel                                        
Temple at Residieh. See Lepsius Denkmaler Abt 3, Band 6, Blatt 138                                                                                             

Hekanakht :  Reign of Ramses II. Year 8-24 of Ramesses' reign?
Present at the dedication of the temple at Abu Simbel in year 24.
(see f.i. pg 95 and 97 Historical Observations on the Military Reliefs of Abu Simbel and Other Ramesside Temples in Nubia, by Anthony J. Spalinger
The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology © 1980)


Viceroy depicted at Buhen (Possibly Heqanefer?)
(From: Buhen, By David Randall-MacIver, Leonard Woolley. Via Google Books)

Paser II:  Second to third decade of the reign of Ramses II?
Known from Abu Simbel. (see f.i. pg 97 Historical Observations on the Military Reliefs of Abu Simbel and Other Ramesside Temples in Nubia, by Anthony J. Spalinger The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology © 1980)
Served as King's messenger to every land and [Scribe ?]...... of the-palace-of-Ramesses-II before becomeing Viceroy.
The Viceroys of Ethiopia (II) by George A. Reisner The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 6, No. 1. (Jan., 1920), pp. 73-88.


Huy:  He was also Mayor of Tjarw (Pi-Ramses) and Messenger to Hatti. Reign of Ramses II
According to an inscription, he escorted Queen Maathorneferure from Hatti to Egypt. Dated to time after year 35?
(see f.i. pg 97 Historical Observations on the Military Reliefs of Abu Simbel and Other Ramesside Temples in Nubia, by Anthony J. Spalinger
The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology © 1980)


Stela of King's Son of Kush Setau from the Louvre.
On the lower register his wife Nofretmut (Mutnofret) is shown behind Setau.

Setau:  Middle of the reign of Ramses II, probabbly after year 38;
Buried in TT289. Setau was a son of an official named Siwadjet and An, Chantress of Amun.
Setau's wife was named Nofretmut. She held the titles of Chief of the Harim of Amun, Chantress of Amun and of Nekhbet.
Setau held the titles of Viceroy of Kush, Overseer of the South Lands, Chief Bowman of Kush, Steward of Thebes, Festival-Leader of Amun. Overseer of the Gold Lands of Amun, Overseer of the Gold Lands of the Lord of the Two Lands, King's scribe. Governor of the City. Overseer of the treasury. Great steward of Amun. Chief of the priests of [....]
Seatu served for a long time and several people who worked for him are known:
Pennesettauwi, "Scribe of the table of Kush”
Tahem(?)'' Overseer of the priests of all the gods"
Horemheb, "Rwd of the king's son"
Hor, "Scribe of the granary of the King’s Son"
Amenemopet, 'Scribe of the soldiery of the King’s Son "
Harnakht, "Scribe of the king's son "
Horemhebwia, "Scribe of the king's son "
Paser, "Scribe of the king's son "
The Viceroys of Ethiopia (II) by George A. Reisner The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 6, No. 1. (Jan., 1920), pp. 73-88.


Setau depicted at Buhen.
(From: Buhen, By David Randall-MacIver, Leonard Woolley. Via Google Books)

Mernodjem, Viceroy of Kush from the time of Ramesses II.
A stela from Abu Simbel mentions that Mernodjem was of a military background.
(From: Mélanges offerts à Jean Vercoutter, Review author[s]: William A. Ward Journal of Near Eastern Studies © 1989 )

Anhotep, Viceroy of Kush, Governor of the South Lands, Scribe of the Tables of the Two Lands,  from the time of Rameses II.
His wife was named Hunuro. Anhotep's tomb is TT300.


Messuy:   Time of Merenptah
Graffiti in the temple of Amada depicts Messuy with a royal uraeus. People like Dodson has proposed the theory that Messuy should be identified with Pharaoh Amenmesse.
(See A. Dodson: Messuy, Amada and Amenmesse;    F.J. Yurco Was Amenesse the Viceroy of Kush, Messuwy? ARCE 1997)

Khaemteri (Khaemtjitry): Merenptah - Seti II
Viceroy of Kush at the end of Merneptah’s reign. Khaemtjitry would be appointed Vizier under the next pharaoh, Amenmesse

Sethy: Siptah.
The Viceroy Sethy is attested in year 1 of Siptah. Sety is also mentioned on some monuments of his son Amenemhab.
Amenemhab was the son of Sety and the Lady Amenemta(?)iauw(?). Sety hold the titles fan-bearer on the king's right, [king's
scribe of the letters?] of the Pharaoh. His son Amenemheb serves as Head bowman, [charioteer?] of His Majesty, overseer of the Southern Lands.
In Abu Simbel Sety is given the titles: Hereditary prince, Count, king's son of Kush, overseer of the Gold Lands of Amun, fan-bearer on the king's right, king's scribe of the letters of Pharaoh, first chief in (?) the stable, eyes of the king of Upper Egypt, ears of the king of Lower Egypt, High-Priest of the Moon-god, Thoth, overseer of the treasury, overseer of the letter-scribes in the Court of the Palace-of-Ramesses-Miamun, in the Court.
(The Viceroys of Ethiopia (Continued), by George A. Reisner The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology © 1920)


Viceroy Sety, Sehel Inscription.
From Lepsius Denkmaler Abt 3, Band 7, Blatt 202

Hori I, Time of Siptah - Sethnakht
Hori, son of Kama is mentioned in Breasted. Hori's tomb was found in Tell Basta.
Titles: First charioteer of His Majesty. King's messenger to every land. Son of Kama (?)of the stable of Sethos I.
(Tell Basta ,by Labib Habachi. Supplement aux Annales du Service des Antiquitks de l'Egypte. Cahier no. 22.)
(The Viceroys of Ethiopia, by George A. Reisner The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology © 1920
The Viceroys of Ethiopia (Continued), by George A. Reisner The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology © 1920)


Viceroy Hori depicted at Buhen.
(From: Buhen, By David Randall-MacIver, Leonard Woolley. Via Google Books)

Hori II,  Time of Ramesses III and Ramesses IV
Hori II is a son of Hori I and also served as Viceroy of Kush. Their tombs have been found in Tell Basta.
A depiction of Hori and the Governor of Buhen are shown before the cartouche of Ramesses III on a lintel from Buhen.
(mentioned in Editorial Foreword The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology © 1963)
Hori II held the titles: King's son of Kush, overseer of the Gold Lands of Amen-Re, King of the Gods. King's scribe.
(The Viceroys of Ethiopia (Continued), by George A. Reisner The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology © 1920)


King's Son of Kush depicted in the tomb of Pennut in Aniba. Dates to the 20th dynasty. Ramesses VI?
From Lepsius Denkmaler Abt 3, Band 7, Page 230


????Siese, Time of Ramesses VI
I have only seen this name on wikipedia. cannot find a source for this individual.

????Nahiho, Time of Ramesses VII (maybe VIII)
I have only seen this name on wikipedia. cannot find a source for this individual.
I did notice that Peden mentions the Charioteer of the Residence, Nahiho, son of the Viceroy Wentawat.

Wentawuat, Time of Ramesses IX
'King's son of Kush, overseer of the Gold Lands of Amen-Re King of the Gods, Head of the stable of the Court.
First of His Majesty (i.e. charioteer), Door-opener. Steward of Amun at Khnum-Weset. High-Priest of Amunn of Khnum-Weset, or of Ramesses" Son of an unnamed viceroy. He may have been the son of Hori II, but this is more or less speculation.
(The Viceroys of Ethiopia (Continued), by George A. Reisner The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology © 1920)
A man named Panaho was apparently scribe to both Wentawat and Ramessesnakht.
(Peden: Graffiti of Pharaonic Egypt - via Google Book Search Pg 132-133)

Tjeni? A viceroy mentioned in grafitto on a pillar in the temple of Buhen. The text also mentions Ramesses XI.
(Peden: Graffiti of Pharaonic Egypt - via Google Book Search)

Ramessesnakht
, Time of Ramesses XI
A man named Panaho was apparently scribe to both Wentawat and Ramessesnakht.
(Peden: Graffiti of Pharaonic Egypt - via Google Book Search)
Also known from grafitti in the temple of Hatshepsut at Buhen. There is no evidence that this Viceroy is connected with other high officials of the same name (i.e the High Priest of Amun)
(The Viceroys of Ethiopia, by George A. Reisner The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology © 1920)
May be placed earlier?: Known from an inscription on a piece of jewelry. globalegyptian museum

Panehesy: end of the 20th dynasty. This Viceroy became persona non-grata. Panehsy, the most powerful person in the Thebaid, set up a military coup by his own decision and without royal support. High Priest Amenhotep may not have been killed then, but helped by the king, without gaining back his former position, however. A source of conflict was Amenhotep's accusation of atrocities by the Nubian soldiers of Panehsy against the Theban population, whereupon Panehsy received the royal command to leave Thebes and to travel south. Nine months after the war had started, Herihor's army dispelled that of Panehsy, the later enemy of state, to the south. Panehsy, buried in Aniba, can be considered the founder of an independent Nubia.
(See for instance: The Suppression of the High Priest Amenhotep, by Edward F. Wente Journal of Near Eastern Studies © 1966 )
Titles: King's scribe. Commander of the army. Overseer of the granary. Steward of Amen-Re. Great chief of the treasury.
The Viceroys of Ethiopia (II) by George A. Reisner The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 6, No. 1. (Jan., 1920), pp. 73-88.

Dynasty 21 and 22

Piankh: Takes on the title of Viceroy of Kush, but most likely only had control over the area near Aswan.
(Mentioned in An Oracle Dated in "The Repeating of Births", by Charles F. Nims Journal of Near Eastern Studies © 1948)
He held the titles: King's scribe. Commander of the army. Commander of the guards of the Pharaoh. Overseer of the granary of the Pharaoh. High-Priest of Amen-Re
The Viceroys of Ethiopia (II) by George A. Reisner The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 6, No. 1. (Jan., 1920), pp. 73-88.

Neskhons: stela of the 'great one of the musical part of Amun-Re, king of gods, priestess of Satet, (female) viceroy of Kush, overseer of the Southern Lands'  Wife of Pinudjem II
The Edwards Tablet in University College London gives her titles as: First Great favourite of Amen-Re, priestess of Khnum, Lord of the Cataract, king's son of Kush, Overseer of the Southern Lands, etc.
Her coffin in Cairo mentions King's Daughter of Kush and King's Daughter.
(See f.i. The Viceroys of Ethiopia, by George A. Reisner The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology © 1920)

[name lost] King's Son of Kush, Overseer of the Southern Lands, Prophet of Khnum - reign of Osorkon II

Hat-nakht, King's Son of Kush, Overseer of the Southern Lands reign of Takelot II

Pamiu, Vizier, Viceroy during reign of Osorkon III en Takelot III
Pamiu's son Pakhuru also became Vizier and later married
Ir-bast-udja-tjau, a daughter of Takelot III. Another son Pediamonet would also become Vizier. The office of Viceroy was not inherited by Pamiu's sons.

Ankh-Osorkon, Vizier, Overseer of the Southern Lands, Prophet of Khnum reign of Takelot III?
From Basis of a standing statue, from Akhmin.
(The Viceroys of Ethiopia (Continued), by George A. Reisner The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology © 1920)





Information comes from:
  • Breasted, J.H. Ancient Records of Egypt, Vol3 Chicago 1906 (reprinted in 2001)
  • Dodson A. and Hilton D. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, London 2004
  • Kitchen, Pharaoh Triumphant.
  • Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions, Volume III
  • Morkot, Black Pharaoh






Comments: email barta@slu.edu