Ancient Egypt


Page by Anneke Bart


Kings and Queens

4th dynasty
Seneferu, Khufu, Khafre, Menkaure, Djedefre, etc.

11th dynasty
Kings named Mentuhotep and Intef

12th dynasty
Amenemhet I - IV,
Senusret I-III

18th dynasty
Amenhotep I-IV,
Tuthmosis I-IV, Akhenaten, Tutankhamen, Aye, Horemheb, etc.

19th dynasty
Sety I-II, Ramesses I-II, Merenptah, Amenmesses, Tawosret.

20th dynasty

Sethnakht, Ramesses III
Ramesses IV - XI

25th dynasty
Alara, Kashta, Piye,
Shabaka, Shabataka,
Taharqa, Tanutamun, etc.

Cleopatra VII Philopator

Old Kingdom Queens (Dyn 1-6)
Middle Kingdom Queens (Dyn 11-13)
New Kingdom Queens (Dyn 16-20)


Officials, Priesthood etc.
Viziers (New Kingdom)
High Priests of Amun
God's Wives of Amun
High Priests of Ptah
Viceroys of Nubia
Who's who of New Kingdom

Amarna Period
Queen Nefertiti
inscriptions Queen Nefertiti.
Queen Kiya

Tombs at Amarna
Houses at Amarna

Valley of the Kings,
Valley of the Queens
Theban Tombs,
Tombs at Abydos
Tombs at El Kab
Tombs in Aswan
Early dynastic Saqqara
New Kingdom Saqqara
The Unis Cemetary

Mastabas at the Giza Plateau
Giza Mastabas 1000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 2000 cemetary
Giza Mataba 2300 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 4000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 5000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 6000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 7000 cemetary

Mummy Caches
Tomb DB320
Tomb KV35


Djedefre - Louvre Museum

(8 years, ca 2447 – 2439 BCE)
Horus name: Kheper
Nebty name: Kheper-em-nebty
Golden Falcon name: Biku-nub
Nomen: Djedefre
(from digitalegypt)

Djedefre (Radjedef, Razedef) was a son of Khufu. It is not known who his mother was. The intended heir to the throne during the early part of Khufu's reign was Prince Kawab. Djedefre became the heir after his (older?) brother died. There are stories about that Djedefre killed his brother and then grabbed the throne. There is no evidence for this theory however. It seems that Prince Kawab died during the reign of his father and was buried in a mastaba in Giza. Djedefre does marry his brother's widow Hetepheres II.  Interestingly enough the wife knwon from a statue is Queen Khentetenka. Djedefre only reigned for 8 years. Djedefre was succeeded by his brother Khefren.
Djedefre was called Ratoises by Manetho.

Pyramid at Abu Rowash (Sehedu-Djedefre = Djedefre’s Sunny Sky). Djedefre moved his necropolis from Giza to Abu Rowash. It is not known why he moved away from the necropolis established by his father. The erection of the pyramids of Khefren and Menkaure shows that there was room to build more pyramids when Djedefre ruled.


Two different views of the ruins of Djedefre's pyramid at Abu Rawash.
(Photo Jon Bodsworth)

Next to the main pyramid the remians of a smaller satellite pyramid have been found. It is not clear if this is a cult pyramid or the burial place of one of Djedefre's wives/

The Satellite pyramid next to Djedefre's pyramid
(Photo Jon Bodsworth)

  • Hetepheres II, Held many titles among which great one of the hetes-scepter, King’s Wife, Priestess of Bapef, Priestess of Tjadjepef, Priestess of Thoth, etc. First married to Prince Kawab, later to Djedefre and possibly finally married to Khafre.
  • Khentetka, She who sees Horus and Seth, beloved King’s Wife, attendant of Horus, Priestess of Neith. Known from statues found at Abu Rowash.

Djedefre with Queen Khentetka at his side.

  • Hornit,  Son of Djedefre and Vizier. His tomb was recently located at the royal cemetary at Abu Rawash (according to egyptsites). A statue of Hornit and his wife Hetepheres - probably from Abû Rawâsh - is now in Cairo. Cairo Mus. CG 544. [PM VIII]
  • BakaMay have been a contender to the throne at the time of Menkaure. (Vernus, Yoyotte and Lorton, The book of Pharaohs, pg 69). A statue now in the Cairo Museum probably depicts Baka. He is shown with a small daughter named Mertiotes. Cairo Mus. CG 176. (Probably from Abû Rawâsh.) [PM VIII]
  • Setka, Known from a statue found in Djedefre's temple. (Now in the Louvre museum)
  • Nikaudjedefre

Setka, son of Djedefre.

  • Hetepheres
  • Neferhetepes, daughter of Djedefre and Hetepheres II. It has been suggested that Neferhetepes was the mother of King Userkaf (N-C. Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt, pg 72)

Officials from the time of Djedefre

Not many people are dated specifically to the time of Djedefre, but several people are known to have been at court from the time of Khufu to the time of Khafre and even later. These people must have also served under King Djedefre. Members of the extended royal family likely served the king.

Prince Ankhaf     Time of Sneferu – Khafre
Ankhaf was Vizier under Khafre. Married to a lady called Hetepheres, who is not buried in this mastaba as it only has one burial shaft. Ankhaf and Hetepheres were both children of Seneferu, hence they were (half-) brother and sister. Parents of Ankhaf were Snefru and a minor Queen. G 7510

Prince Minkhaf    Temp. Khufu to Khephren.
King’s son of his body, Chief Justice and Vizier (of Khephren), etc. Parents, Khufu and possibly Henutsen. Tomb G 7430+7440.
Kephren's second Vizier (A History of Ancient Egypt By Nicolas-Christophe Grimal - pg 68)

Khufu-khaf I Time of Khufu – Khafre
Son of Khufu and Queen Henutsen. Served as Vizier (probably of Khufu). Some have speculated that Khufu-khaf is Khafre, but this is uncertain. Tomb G 7130 and 7140.
Married to Nefertkau II and possibly the father of Khufukhaf II.
Daughter: king’s daughter [Nefret?]-ka. Sons: Wet-ka, and Iun-ka.

Khemtnu Titles: King’s wab-priest, Prophet of Khufu, Steward of Kawab, Hetepheres II and Meresankh III, etc. Temp. Khufu to end of Dyn. 4 or early Dyn. 5. It's hard to say if Khemtnu was a steward to Kawab, Hetepheres and Meresankh or if he served as a steward in their cult. If he did personally serve the royal family, he is one of very few palace officials known to us. Buried in G 5210.

Akhethotep Titles: Prophet of Khufu, Sole companion, Director of the Palace, etc.,
Akhethotep was married to Princess Meritiotes, who had the titles King’s daughter of his body, Prophetess of Khufu, Hathor, and Neith, etc. Akhethotep and Meritiotes likely date to the time period from Khufu to Khephren. Meritiotes was likely the daughter of Khufu and Queen Meritiotes I. Akhethotep and his wife were buried in G 7650.

Nefermaat II
Time of Seneferu – Khufu/Khephren?
King’s son, Hereditary prince, Overlord of Nekheb, etc. (Vizier of Khephren.) Buried in G 7060
Son of Nefertkau I (G7050) and grandson of Seneferu.

Son of the Vizier Nefermaat II and great-grandson of Seneferu. Sneferu-khaf may have lived into the ealry 5th dynasty.
Treasurer of the King of Lower Egypt, Herdsman of Apis, etc.Tomb G 7070

Nesutpaneter - Dates to the time of Radjedef to Sahure. Buried in the Central field at Giza. A lintel in the tomb mentions Radjedef, Khafre, Menkaure, Shepseskaf, Userkaf and Sahure. No titles available for this indvidual.


Dodson, Hilton The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, London 2004
N-C. Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt
Porter and Moss, Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings; Part III; Download from
Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Statues, Reliefs and PaintingsVolume VIII, Parts 1 and 2: Objects of Provenance Not Known: Statues  Online Version (April 2008)

Comments: email