Ancient Egypt

Page by Anneke Bart

Kings and Queens
4th dynasty
Seneferu, Khufu, Khafre, Menkaure, Djedefre, etc.

11th dynasty
Kings named Mentuhotep and Intef

12th dynasty
Amenemhet I - IV,
Senusret I-III

18th dynasty
Amenhotep I-IV,
Tuthmosis I-IV, Akhenaten, Tutankhamen, Aye, Horemheb, etc.

19th dynasty
Sety I-II, Ramesses I-II, Merenptah, Amenmesses, Tawosret.

20th dynasty

Sethnakht, Ramesses III
Ramesses IV - XI

25th dynasty
Alara, Kashta, Piye,
Shabaka, Shabataka,
Taharqa, Tanutamun, etc.

Cleopatra VII Philopator

Queens (D1-6)- Old Kingdom
Queens (D11-13) Middle Kingd.
Queens (D16-20)- New Kingdom
Queens (D21-29)- Late Period

Officials, Priesthood etc.
Viziers (New Kingdom)
High Priests of Amun
God's Wives of Amun
High Priests of Ptah
Viceroys of Nubia
Who's who of New Kingdom

Amarna Period
Queen Nefertiti
inscriptions Queen Nefertiti.
Queen Kiya

Tombs at Amarna
Houses at Amarna

Valley of the Kings,
Valley of the Queens
Theban Tombs,
Tombs at Abydos
Tombs at El Kab
Tombs in Aswan
Early dynastic Saqqara
New Kingdom Saqqara
The Unis Cemetary

Mastabas at the Giza Plateau
Giza Mastabas 1000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 2000 cemetary
Giza Mataba 2300 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 4000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 5000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 6000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 7000 cemetary

Mummy Caches
Tomb DB320
Tomb KV35

Hatshepsut (Maatkare)

Conjectural date of reign: 1472 BC – 1457 BC

Horus name: Weseretkau
Nebty name: Wadjrenput
Golden Falcon name: Netjeretkhau
Prenomen: Maatkare
Nomen: Hatshepsut

Father: Thutmosis I (Akheperkhare)
Mother: Ahmose. Queen Ahmose held the titles: Hereditary Princess (iryt-p`t), Great of Praises (wrt-hzwt), Mistress of Great Beloved Sweetness (nebt-bnrt-‘3(t)-mrwt), Great King’s Wife, his beloved (hmt-niswt-wrt meryt.f), Mistress of Gladness (hnwt-ndjm-ib), Lady of all Women (hnwt-hmwt-nbwt), Mistress of the Two Lands (hnwt-t3wy),Companion of Horus (zm3yt-hrw), Beloved Companion of Horus (zm3yt-hrw-mryt.f), King’s Sister (snt-niswt).
According to her titles she was a King's Sister. Some believe she was a sister of King Amenhotep, and served as a royal connection to the old ruling family. It is equally possible that she was a sister of King Tuthmosis I. She was clearly a high ranking royal lady. She is known to have had at least two daughters: Hatshepsut and a princess mentioned in the Temple of Deir en Bahari, by the name of Neferubity.

Brothers: Thutmosis II (Akheperenre), Amenmose, Wadjmose, Ramose (?) (likely half-brothers)
Sister: Neferubity

Queen Ahmose, King Tuthmosis and the princess Neferubity

Husband: Thutmosis II (Akheperenre)
Children: Neferure. She was the daughter of Hatshepsut and Tuthmosis II. She served as God’s Wife after her mother. Neferure may have been a queen during the early reign of her (step-) brother Tuthmosis III. The queenly titles come from an inscription later usurped for Tuthmosis’ mother Isis. Neferure's titles include: King’s Daughter (s3t-niswt), God’s Wife (hmt-ntr),
Possibly: Great King’s Wife (hmt-niswt-wrt), Mistress of Upper and Lower Egypt (hnwt-Shm’w T3-mhw).


Princess Neferure carried by her tutor Senenmut.
Statue from the Field Museum in Chicago (Thanks John :) )

Stepson: Thutmosis III (Menkheperre)

Hatshepsut with her husband Tuthmosis II (from Luxor)
Photo Courtesy of Alain Guilleux.

Hatshepsut was a daughter of the Pharaoh Thutmosis I. She would later claim that her father appointed her as his heir to the throne. The fact is though that Thutmosis I was followed on the throne by his son Thutmosis II. Thutmosis II reigned for 12 years. During this time period Hatshepsut is depicted as Great Royal Wife.

Hatshepsut as nesw-bity (king), but dressed as a woman (from Luxor)
Photo Courtesy of Alain Guilleux.

At the time of the death of Tuthmosis II, his son - Thutmosis III - was only a child. At first Hatshepsut seems to have taken on the role of regent, but at some point she declared herself pharaoh. She had herself depicted in the guise of a man complete with false beard.


The Chapelle Rouge at Karnak.
Hatshepsut commissioned this red quartzite barque sanctuary of Amen. The photograph on the right shows a close-up of the red chapel. The monument also bears the cartouche of Hatshepsut's step-son and successor Tuthmose III which can be seen here.

Deir el Bahari Mortuary temple (“Djeser Djeseru”)
The temple see from the front and from a vantage point in the Theban Hills.
(The picture on the right is by Sesen)


The Osiris Statues and one of the heads (pictures by Yuti)

The architect of this masterpiece is generally thought to be Senenmut, but he never claims to have designed the temple. His title is ‘Controller of the works in Djeser-Djeseru’. In may places the wonderful colors of the temple inscriptions are still preserved.

Hatshepsut before Horus and a depiction of Anubis
(Pictures by Sesen)


The photographs below come from eriding (photographs courtesy of Roger Foster)
Click on the photographs to see a larger image.


The following photographs are made by Kevin, owner of Egyptian Dreams
Click on the photographs to see a larger image.


One of the facades showing the large Osiride statues.


The famous Hathor capital. On the right is a facade with Osiride statues shown in a recessed space.


A close-up of one of the cows depicted. On the right a lintel with the cartouches of Tuthmosis III.


Two separate scenes showing Anubis. A close-up of the offering table before Anubis can be seen in one of the other photographs above.


The god Amun before a great many offerings?

Speos Artemidos Temple in Middle Egypt
Near Beni Hassan Hatshepsut dedicated two temples to the fierce lion goddess Pakhet. One temple was later called the Speos Artemidos (Grotto of Artemis) because Pakhet was equated with the Greek goddess Artemis. This temple remained intact until the reign of Seti I, when it was “restored”.
The other temple, the speos Batn el-Bakarah, was heavily damaged by Thutmosis III.

Temples at Thebes:

Just to the East of the entrance of Rameses III's temple is a smaller temple that dates originally to the time of Hatshepsut and Thotmose III. It was enlarged as late as the Roman era. The two columns in the photograph were added in the Ptolemaic period. (description from egyptarchive - J Bodsworth)

In Karnak we find an obelisk of Hatshepsut and her father Tuthmosis I, as well as a fallen obelisk dated to the time of Queen Hatshepsut.

Below, on the left we see a close-up of the fallen obelisk of Hatshepsut
On the right, we see the obelisk of Hatshepsut viewed from beside the Sanctuary with the Hall of Records of Tuthmose III in between.

Just beyond the 6th Pylon a wall has been reconstructed in a small chapel. The relief depicted below shows Horus on the left and Thoth on the right. The central figure of Hatshepsut and her cartouches have been erased. (description from egyptarchive - J Bodsworth)

Great events during her reign:
Expedition to the land of Punt
According to the inscriptions at the temple at Deir el Bahari an expedition was sent to the land of Punt in year 9 of pharaoh Hatshepsut. Nehsi was appointed the leader of this expedition. Upon return to Egypt the expedition brought back 31 fresh myrrh trees (to be planted at the temple at Deir el Bahari), electrum, eye cosmetics, throw sticks of the Puntites, ebony, ivory, a southern panther, many panther skins and 3300 small cattle. [Breasted]
Excavations in December 2004 have brought some caves to light where the ships used for this expedition have been stored. These caves were found near a pharaonic harbour on Egypt's Red Sea coast.

House on stilts in the land of Punt - from Deir el Bahari
(Photo by yuti)

Sed-Jubilee in year 15.
Sed jubilees or festivals were usually celebrated in the 30th year of the monarch’s reign, but it was not unheard of for kings to celebrate such a festival at an earlier time.

Burial and Mummy of Hatshepsut

Hatshepsut's father Tuthmosis I was originally buried in the Valley of the Kings KV20. This tomb was designed by the royal architect Ineni. Hatshepsut enlarged the tomb so that it could contain a double burial; namely Hatshepsut and her father Tuthmosis I.


The sarcophagus (left and middle) and the canopic chest of Hatshepsut.

Hatshepsut's step-son and successor Tuthmosis III later moved the body of Tuthmosis I to KV38. It is not known what happened to the body of Queen Hathepsut. A canopic jar with mummified organs and inscribed with the name of Hatshepsut was found in the royal cache DB320.
Recently it has been suggested that a mummy found in KV60 - the tom of the royal nurse Sitre, called In - may be Hatshepsut's body. At first it was suggested (Ryan) that the mummy that was found on the floor was that of Hatshepsut. More recently Hawass has suggested that the body in the coffin (inscribed for the royal nurse Sitre) is actually that of this famous Queen.

In June 2007 it was announced that the mummy on the floor of KV60 was identified as being Queen Hatshepsut. A chest with a jar containing a liver was found in DB320 - the royal cache from Thebes - and this jar also contained a tooth fragment. The tooth fragment matches a chipped tooth from this mummy. The mummy now identified as Queen Hatshepsut shows a heavy set woman of ca. 50 years. Her body shows that she may have suffered from diabetes and scans from the pelvic area may indicate that she suffered from liver cancer.

Hatshepsut reigned ca 22 years and hence must have been about 28 years old when her husband Pharaoh Tuthmosis II died and she became regent for her step-son Tuthmosis III. Counting back further she must have been ca 15 or 16 when she married Tuthmosis II and became great royal wife.

See also Theban Mapping Project KV20  and KV60

See also this article about the research and finding (with some great photographs) by Dr Zawi Hawass

Important Court Officials

Senenmut with Princess Neferure
Ahmose Pen-nekhbet Soldier, possibly father of Satiah the wife of Thutmosis III. He was appointed tutor of the royal princess Neferure together with Senenmut.[Breasted].
Amenhotep Chief Steward
Djehutinefer: Attendant to the Wife of the God. Married to lady Benemeb. (Statue in the Louvre) Time of Hatshepsut or Thutmosis III.
Senenmut Steward of the Queen, Steward of the Estates of Amen, Vizier, Tutor to the Princess Neferure with Ahmose Pen-nekhbet
Sitre (called In(et) ) Wet-nurse to Hatshepsut.
Tjutju , Overseer of the gs-pr of the mistress of the Two Lands, etc., son of  Kahirkhentiu and Henutiri

Government Officials
(Southern Vizier?)
(TT67) Hapuseneb also served as High priest of Amun under Hatshepsut. He seems to have been one of the great supporters of this Queen. Son of Hapu (Lecture Priest of Amun) and Ahhotep. A shrine at Gebel el Silsile mentione his brother Sa-Amun and his sister Ahmose. The same shrine mentions his sons Djehutjmes-machet, User-pechtj, Aa-cheper-ka-ra-nefer (High Priest at the Mortuary Temple of Thutmosis II), and several daughters. his titles also include: director of all royal work, keeper of the seal of the King of Lower Egypt. See page maintained by Dr. K. Leser
Amethu called Ahmose (Southern Vizier) (TT83). Wife: Ta-amethu. Sons: Neferweben (Vizier), User (Vizier - TT61 and 131), Amenhotep (Overseer of the Magazine of Amun - TT122), Akheperkare (Priest of Monthu - mentioned in TT122), Amenmose (?) (Scribe in the treasury of Amen). Grand-children: Rekhmire (Vizier), son of Neferweben , Merymaet (Second Prophet of Amun), son of Amenhotep.
Useramen Vizier He was the son of the previous Vizier Ahmose and the uncle of the next Vizier Rekhmire (Rekhmire dates to the time of Thutmosis III). Served as deputy Vizier when his father was old.

Viceroy of Kush (i.e. Nubia)
Seni: Served as Viceroy under Ahmose- Tuthmosis II and probably in the first year of Hatshepsut/Tuthmosis' co-regency.
Amen-em-nekhu: According to Pammiger, sometime after year 2 of Hatshepsut/Tuthmosis III, Seni retired and was succeeded by Amen-em-nekhu, a confidant of Hatshepsut. After Hatshepsut's death, in year 23 Amenemnekhu was replaced by Nehi, a confidant of Tuthmosis III.
Inebni Viceroy of Kush in latter part of reign? Not certain if Inebni served as Viceroy. He did hold the title of Commander of the Bowmen. It is interesting that on a statue of his Inebni (Enebni) refers to Thutmosis III as Hatshepsut’s  brother [Breasted] There’s a statue of an Inebny in the British Museum who is recorded as being commander of bowmen and overseer of the king's weapons. It was 'made by the favour' of the joint sovereigns Hatshepsut (1479-1457 BC) and Thutmose III (1479-1425 BC), who ruled together for a time. However, Hatshepsut's name has subsequently been erased.

Architect, Overseer of the double gold and silver houses. Ineni had served Amenhotep I, Thutmosis I, and Thutmosis II. He would die during the co-regency of Thutmosis III and Hatshepsut. It is clear from his monuments that Thutmosis III is the son of Thutmosis II, and that even during the early co-regency of Thutmosis III and Hatshepsut, before she declared herself Pharaoh, all the power really lay with Hatshepsut.
Neshi, Chancellor, leader of the expedition to Punt, Chief treasurer. Buried in Saqqara (tomb discovered by Zivie)
Sennefer Mayor of Thebes
Thutiy: Overseer of the double gold and silver houses. He was the successor of Ineni in this position. He was a loyal supporter of Hatshepsut and throughout his tomb his name and that of the Queen have been erased. In the punt reliefs he is shown taking notes during the weighing and the measuring. He is named as the scribe and Steward Thutiy. Other titles given on a Stela on the façade of his tomb include:Great Favorite of the Lord of the Two Lands, Chief of Prophets in Hermopolis, Wearer of the Royal Seal, and many more.
Thutmosis Treasurer
Djehuty, overseer of the treasury, In 2003 a sarcophagus of a woman was discovered buried in the tombs courtyard. It is not known who she is. Djehhuty was overseer of the treasury and overseer of the works for Hatshepsut. He lived on into Thutmosis III’s reign. Both pharaohs are represented in the tomb. TT11


Djehuti , Overseer of the treasury of Montu, etc. (probably TT 11), dedicated by son Mentunakht.
Hapuseneb High Priest of Amun, Chief of the Prophets of South and North, Builder of the royal tomb. Hapuseneb was the most powerful man in Hatshepsut’s party. The formation of the priesthood of the whole land into a coherent organization, with a single individual at it’s head, appears for the first time. This meant that through Hapuseneb, Hatshepsut had the entire priesthood on her side. [Breasted] Hapuseneb was buried in TT67. Parents: Hepu (third lector of Amun) and Ahhotep (Royal concubine); Wife: Amenhotep. Brother: Sa-Amun; Sister: Ahmose; Sons: Djehutjmes-machet, User-pekht, Aa-cheper-ka-ra-nefer; Daughters: Henut, Henut-nefert, Sen-seneb, Ta-em-resefu . See also: 
Puyemre Second Prophet of Amen
Thutiy: Chief of Prophets in Hermopolis, Overseer of the double gold and silver houses. He was the successor of Ineni in this position. He was a loyal supporter of Hatshepsut and throughout his tomb his name and that of the Queen have been erased. In the punt reliefs he is shown taking notes during the weighing and the measuring. He is named as the scribe and Steward Thutiy. Other titles given on a Stela on the façade of his tomb include:Great Favorite of the Lord of the Two Lands, Wearer of the Royal Seal, and many more.

Bibliography / Recommended Reading
Breasted, J.H. Ancient Records of Egypt, Vol2, The eighteenth dynasty. Chicago 1906 (reprinted in 2001)
Dodson A. and Hilton D. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, London 2004
Tyldesley, J., Hatchepsut, the Female Pharaoh. 1996 (reprinted London 1998)  Website maintained by Dr. Karl Leser dedicated to Hatshepsut and her time period.


Last edited: April 2007

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