Ancient Egypt


Page by Anneke Bart


Kings and Queens

4th dynasty
Seneferu, Khufu, Khafre, Menkaure, Djedefre, etc.

11th dynasty
Kings named Mentuhotep and Intef

12th dynasty
Amenemhet I - IV,
Senusret I-III

18th dynasty
Amenhotep I-IV,
Tuthmosis I-IV, Akhenaten, Tutankhamen, Aye, Horemheb, etc.

19th dynasty
Sety I-II, Ramesses I-II, Merenptah, Amenmesses, Tawosret.

20th dynasty

Sethnakht, Ramesses III
Ramesses IV - XI

25th dynasty
Alara, Kashta, Piye,
Shabaka, Shabataka,
Taharqa, Tanutamun, etc.

Cleopatra VII Philopator

Old Kingdom Queens (Dyn 1-6)
Middle Kingdom Queens (Dyn 11-13)
New Kingdom Queens (Dyn 16-20)


Officials, Priesthood etc.
Viziers (New Kingdom)
High Priests of Amun
God's Wives of Amun
High Priests of Ptah
Viceroys of Nubia
Who's who of New Kingdom

Amarna Period
Queen Nefertiti
inscriptions Queen Nefertiti.
Queen Kiya

Tombs at Amarna
Houses at Amarna

Valley of the Kings,
Valley of the Queens
Theban Tombs,
Tombs at Abydos
Tombs at El Kab
Tombs in Aswan
Early dynastic Saqqara
New Kingdom Saqqara
The Unis Cemetary

Mastabas at the Giza Plateau
Giza Mastabas 1000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 2000 cemetary
Giza Mataba 2300 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 4000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 5000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 6000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 7000 cemetary

Mummy Caches
Tomb DB320
Tomb KV35

Hetepheres II

Titles of Hetepheres II:
Daughter of the King of Upper and Lower Egypt Khufu (Sat nesut bity Khufu - sAt nswt bity Xwfw)
King’s beloved daughter of his body (sat nesut en khetef merytef - sAt nswt nt Xt.f mrt.f )
King’s Daughter (Sat nesut - sAt nswt)
King’s wife (Hemet nesut - Hmt nswt )
King’s wife, his beloved (Hemet nesut meryt ef - Hmt nswt mrt.f )
Beholder of Horus and Seth, (Maat Hor Setekh - mAAt Hr-StX)
Follower of Horus (Khet Hor - xt Hr)
Intimate of Horus (Tjiset Hor - Tist Hr)
Companion of Horus (Smeret Hor - smr[t] Hr)
Consort of him who is beloved of the Two Ladies (Semayet mery Nebty - smAt mry Nbty)
Great favorite (weret hetes - wrt Hts)
Controler of the butchers of the acacia house (Kherp Seshemtu Shendet - Hrp sSm[tyw] SnDt)
Priestess of Thoth (Hemet Netjer Djehuty - Hmt-nTr DHwty)
Priestess of Bapefy (Hemet Netjer Bapef - Hmt-nTr BA-(p) f )
Priestess of Tjasep (Hemet Netjer Tjasep - Hmt-nTr TA-sp)

Hetepheres II (left) and her daughter Meresankh III
Statue from her daughter's tomb (From Wikimedia Commons)

Her life

    Hetepheres was a daughter of Khufu and an unknown Queen. She was named after her grand-mother Hetepheres I - the mother of Khufu. Hetepheres first married Kawab, who was her (half-) brother. Her first marriage took place during the reign of her father Khufu and resulted in at least three sons and a daughter. Prince Kawab was likely the intended heir to the throne. He died before his father did however.
    After the death of her first husband she most likely married one of her brother in laws Djedefre. On statues Djedefre seems to have been accompanied by his wife Khentetenka, but some inscriptions indicate that Hetepheres was also a royal wife. She may have later married Khafre as well.

Sphinx of Hetepheres II from Djedefre's complex at Abu Roash

    She was at least able to maintain a position of some importance at court. One of her sons would become Director of the Palace, while another served as Treasurer of the King. The greatest honor would go to her daughter Meresankh III however. Meresankh would later become Queen as the wife of Khafre.

The children of Hetepheres II and Kawab

Duaenhor G 7750 King’s son of his body, Companion of his father. Temp. Khufu to Menkaurea.
Kaemsekhem G 7660. King’s son, Director of the Palace, etc. Parents, Kawab and Hetepheres II (tombs G 7110, 7350). Wife of Kaemsekhem is named Ka'aper. He may be the father of Rawer (G 7660) and Minkhaf.
Mindjedef G 7760. King’s son of his body, Hereditary prince, Treasurer of the King of Lower Egypt, etc. Temp. Khufu to Menkaure. Parents (possibly), Kawab and Hetepheres II Wife, Khufuaankh
Meresankh III Daughter of Kawab and Hetepheres II, Wife of Khafre.

Children of Hetepheres II and Djedefre:

Neferhetepes It has been suggested that Neferhetepes was the mother of King Userkaf (N-C. Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt, pg 72)


In Giza in Mastaba G7350. She had initially planned to be interred in the joint tomb she and her first husband Prince Kawab had - G7110 and 7120. Hetepheres II donated her tomb to her daughter Meresankh III. Hetepheres died in year 1 of an unknown ruler. She may have died during the first year of Menkaure's rule, but some egyptologists have theorized that she may have died as late as in the first year of Shepseskhaf's rule.


Dodson, Hilton The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, London 2004
N-C. Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt
Porter and Moss, Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings; Part III; Download from

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