Ancient Egypt


Page by Anneke Bart


Kings and Queens

4th dynasty
Seneferu, Khufu, Khafre, Menkaure, Djedefre, etc.

11th dynasty
Kings named Mentuhotep and Intef

12th dynasty
Amenemhet I - IV,
Senusret I-III

18th dynasty
Amenhotep I-IV,
Tuthmosis I-IV, Akhenaten, Tutankhamen, Aye, Horemheb, etc.

19th dynasty
Sety I-II, Ramesses I-II, Merenptah, Amenmesses, Tawosret.

20th dynasty

Sethnakht, Ramesses III
Ramesses IV - XI

Cleopatra VII Philopator

Queens (D1-6)- Old Kingdom
Queens (D11-13) Middle Kingd.
Queens (D16-20)- New Kingdom
Queens (D21-29)- Late Period


Officials, Priesthood etc.
Viziers (New Kingdom)
High Priests of Amun
God's Wives of Amun
High Priests of Ptah
Viceroys of Nubia
Who's who of New Kingdom

Amarna Period
Queen Nefertiti
inscriptions Queen Nefertiti.
Queen Kiya

Tombs at Amarna
Houses at Amarna

Valley of the Kings,
Valley of the Queens
Theban Tombs,
Tombs at Abydos
Tombs at El Kab
Tombs in Aswan
Early dynastic Saqqara
New Kingdom Saqqara
The Unis Cemetary

Mastabas at the Giza Plateau
Giza Mastabas 1000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 2000 cemetary
Giza Mataba 2300 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 4000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 5000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 6000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 7000 cemetary

Mummy Caches
Tomb DB320
Tomb KV35


Prince Kawab, with Hetepheres and Meresankh in a boat pulling papyrus.
From his daughter Meresankh's tomb.

Selection of the Titles of Kawab: Officiant of Anubis (Hts Jnpw), Priest of Selket (Hm-nTr Srkt), King's Son (sA nswt), King's Son of his Body (sA nswt n Ht.f), King’s eldest son of his body (sA nswt n Xt.f smsw), His eldest son (sA.f smsw),  Hereditary Prince (jry pat), Count (h3ty'), Chief of the ten(s) of Upper Egypt (wr mDw Smaw), Sole companion of love (s mr waty n mrw(t)), Vizier (TAty) (the title of Vizier occurs on a statue from Mitrahina)

Kawab was a son of Khufu and Queen Meritiotes (I). Kawab has the title "eldest son of the King" and may have been born during the reign of his grand-father Snefru. His mother is mentioned in his tomb in Giza:

sA.s mr.s KA-wab, sAt Ntr.s
 xrp jmAt sSmt Mrt.jt.s
mwt.f mst n Xwfw
“Her son, her beloved, Ka-wab, the daughter of her god
she who is in charge of the affairs of the jmAt, Meretyotes
his mother, who bore (him) to Khufu.”

Kawab may have been the intended heir to the throne. He was married to his sister Hetepheres II. Kawab and his wife had at least three sons and a daughter. Kawab died before his father Khufu and hence never made it to the throne. He was buried in Mastaba 7110-7120 which was initially intended to be a family tomb for Kawab and his wife Hetepheres. The Mastaba was rather severely damaged and the state of the tomb lead to some rather wild speculation. At some point it was theorized that Kawab was murdered by his (half-) brother Djedefre and that he suffered damnatio memoriae. It seems however that his wife married aforementioned Djedefre, and Kawab's sons later rose to respectable positions at court. So there is not much direct evidence that Kawab met with a violent end. He may have died a natural death and the destruction of his tomb could have occurred in later periods as there is some evidence of intrusive burials at a later time period.

The children of Hetepheres II and Kawab
  • Duaenhor G 7750 King’s son of his body, Companion of his father. Temp. Khufu to Menkaurea.
  • Kaemsekhem G 7660. King’s son, Director of the Palace, etc. Parents, Kawab and Hetepheres II (tombs G 7110, 7350). Wife of Kaemsekhem is named Ka'aper. He may be the father of Rawer (G 7660) and Minkhaf.
  • Mindjedef G 7760. King’s son of his body, Hereditary prince, Treasurer of the King of Lower Egypt, etc. Temp. Khufu to Menkaure. Parents (possibly), Kawab and Hetepheres II Wife, Khufuaankh
  • Meresankh III Daughter of Kawab and Hetepheres II, Wife of Khafre.

  • Dodson, Hilton The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, London 2004
  • Porter and Moss, Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings; Part III; Download from

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