Page by Anneke Bart
Kings and Queens
Seneferu, Khufu, Khafre, Menkaure, Djedefre, etc.
Kings named Mentuhotep and Intef
Amenemhet I - IV,
Tuthmosis I-IV, Akhenaten, Tutankhamen, Aye, Horemheb, etc.
Sety I-II, Ramesses I-II, Merenptah, Amenmesses, Tawosret.
Sethnakht, Ramesses III
Ramesses IV - XI
Cleopatra VII Philopator
Queens (D1-6)- Old Kingdom
Queens (D11-13) Middle Kingd.
Queens (D16-20)- New Kingdom
Queens (D21-29)- Late Period
Officials, Priesthood etc.
Viziers (New Kingdom)
High Priests of Amun
God's Wives of Amun
High Priests of Ptah
Viceroys of Nubia
Who's who of New Kingdom
inscriptions Queen Nefertiti.
Tombs at Amarna
Houses at Amarna
Valley of the Kings,
Valley of the Queens
Tombs at Abydos
Tombs at El Kab
Tombs in Aswan
Early dynastic Saqqara
New Kingdom Saqqara
The Unis Cemetary
Mastabas at the Giza Plateau
Giza Mastabas 1000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 2000 cemetary
Giza Mataba 2300 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 4000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 5000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 6000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 7000 cemetary
(23 years, ca 2437 – 2414 BCE)
Horus name: Weser-ib
Nebty name: Weser-m-nebty
Golden Falcon name: Netjer-nub-sekhem
Greek: Chephren (Khephren)
Son of Khufu. Younger brother of Prince Kawab and Pharaoh Djedefre. It is not known who Khafre's mother was, but he did hold Queen Meritites in high regard as shown in this inscription:
Kings-wife, his beloved, devoted to Horus, Mertitytes.
King's-wife, his beloved, Mertitytes; beloved of the Favorite of
the Two Goddesses; she who says anything whatsoever and it is done
for her. Great in the favor of Snefr[u] ; great in the favor
of Khuf[u] , devoted to Horus, honored under Khafre. Merti[tyt]es.
[Breasted; Ancient Records]
Khafre is thought to be the son of Khufu and Queen Meritites by some becuase of this inscription. He must have been a younger son, as his older brother Kawab seems to have been the intended heir of Khufu and upon Khufu's death the throne went to Khafre's brother Djedefre.
Several important positions in the country were filledd by close relatives of Khafre. The position of Vizier was fulfilled by the Princes Nefermaat, Ankhhaf and Minkhaf. Nefermaat was a grandson of Pharaoh Snefru, Ankhaf was a son of Snefru and Minkhaf was a son of Khufu. So this influential position was held by a cousin, an uncle and a brother,
Similarly Akhethotep, married to Meritites - daughter of Khufu - and hence a brother-in-law of Khafre served as director of the palace at some point, quite possibly during the reign of Khafre.
Khufu may have had at least five wives. It is not entirely clear of Meresankh II and Khamerenebty I were wives of Khufu. Queens like Henukehedjet and Personet are not well attested either. Henukehedjet was the mother of Prince Sekhemkare who is thought to be a son of Khafre. Personet was the mother of Prince Nikaure and is known from her own tomb which is dated to the reign of Khafre.
Not much is known about the reign of Khafre aside from his building projects. Khafre is the owner of the second largest pyramid at Giza, avalley temple, a mortuary temple and well as the sphinx.
Pyramid at Giza. The Egyptian name of the pyramid was Wer(en)-Khafre which means "Khafre is Great.
The pyramid complex
Khafre's pyramid, the quarry from which stones were cut, and the sarcophagus.
(Images from egyptarchive)
Subsidiary Pyramid - GII a
It is not clear who was buried there. Sealings have been found of a King's eldest son of his body etc and the Horus name of Khafre.
The valley temple of Khafre was located closer to the Nile and would have stood right next to the Sphinx temple. Inscriptions from the entrance way have been found which mention Hathor and Bubastis. Blocks have been found showing the partial remains of an inscription with the Horus name of Khafre (Weser-ib).
Valley Temple of Khafre (Photo: Jon Bodsworth)
Mariette discovered statues of Khafre in 1860. Several were found in a well in the floor and were headless. But other complete statues were found as well.
The mortuary temple was located very close to the pyramid. From the mortuary temple come fragments of maceheads inscribed with Khafre's name as well as some stone vessels.
A ceremonial macehead with Khafre's name.
Great Sphinx and Sphinx Temple.
The sphinx is said to date to the time of Khafre. A temple dedicated to Haremakhet was erected by Khafre. It was located right in front of the paws of the Sphinx.
The sphinx in front of Khafre's pyramid (left) and the SPhinx seen from the side (right)
(photos by conorp; see conorp's website for high resolution pictures)
Other individuals known from Khafre's reign:
Daughter of Snefru and mother of the Vizier Nefermaat. G 7050.
Prince Nefermaat (II). King’s son, Hereditary prince, Overlord of Nekheb, etc. Vizier of Khafre. G 7060.
Son of Princess Nefertkau and hence a grandson of Pharaoh Snefru.
Son of the Vizier Nefermaat II and great-grandson of Seneferu. Sneferu-khaf may have lived into the ealry 5th dynasty.
Treasurer of the King of Lower Egypt, Herdsman of Apis, etc.Tomb G 7070
Prince Minkhaf King’s son of his body, Chief Justice and Vizier of Khafre, etc. G 7430+7440.
Son of Khufu and possibly Queen Henutsen (based on the fact that Queen Henutsen is mentioned in the tomb).
Ankhaf was Vizier under Khafre. Married to a lady called Hetepheres, who is not buried in this mastaba as it only has one burial shaft. Ankhaf and Hetepheres were both children of Seneferu, hence they were (half-) brother and sister. Parents of Ankhaf were Snefru and a minor Queen. G 7510. Attested in his tomb are Hetepheres (wife of Ankh-haf), Snefru, Hetepheres I, and some others who may or may not date to this time period.
King’s son of his body, Companion of his father. Probably a son of Kawab and Hetepheres II. Lived during the reigns of Khafre en Menkaure. Buried in G 7550 (LG 58)
Akhethotep Titles: Prophet of Khufu, Sole companion, Director of the Palace, etc.,
Akhethotep was married to Princess Meritiotes, who had the titles King’s daughter of his body, Prophetess of Khufu, Hathor, and Neith, etc. Akhethotep and Meritiotes likely date to the time period from Khufu to Khephren. Meritiotes was likely the daughter of Khufu and Queen Meritiotes I. Akhethotep and his wife were buried in G 7650.
Nefer (Nufer) Overseer of scribes of the crews, Director of a crew of recruits, Overseer of the House of Weapons, etc.
Nefer served under Pharaoh Khafre. He was married to the lady Meresankh. Tomb: G 2110
Khemetnu - Overseer of funerary priests (Imy-r Hm[w]-kA), Steward (Imy-r pr), Royal purifying Priest (Wab-nswt ), Scribe (Sesh) Khemetnu was an official from the household of Queen Meresankh III. He is mentioned in her tomb and was buried nearby.
Khemetnu the Younger? - Steward (imy-r pr), Overseer of funerary priests (Imy-r Hm[w]-kA), Scribe (Sesh) . It's not clear if this is a son of Khemetnu (with the same name) or if this person is identical to Khemetnu.
Rery - Funerary priest (Hm-kA), Director of dining pavillion (xrp sH) Official known from the tomb of Queen Meresankh III.
Katjesu - Funerary priest (Hm-kA). Official known from the tomb of Queen Meresankh III.
Rehay Outline painter (Qdwt), Painter (sS qd[t]) Official known from the tomb of Queen Meresankh III.
Ptahshepses - Inspector of funerary priests (interior chapel) (sHD Hmw-kA) Official known from the tomb of Queen Meresankh III.
Nykauptah - Funerary priest (hm-kA) (interior chapel) Official known from the tomb of Queen Meresankh III.
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