Ancient Egypt


Page by Anneke Bart


Kings and Queens

4th dynasty
Seneferu, Khufu, Khafre, Menkaure, Djedefre, etc.

11th dynasty
Kings named Mentuhotep and Intef

12th dynasty
Amenemhet I - IV,
Senusret I-III

18th dynasty
Amenhotep I-IV,
Tuthmosis I-IV, Akhenaten, Tutankhamen, Aye, Horemheb, etc.

19th dynasty
Sety I-II, Ramesses I-II, Merenptah, Amenmesses, Tawosret.

20th dynasty

Sethnakht, Ramesses III
Ramesses IV - XI

Cleopatra VII Philopator

Queens (D1-6)- Old Kingdom
Queens (D11-13) Middle Kingd.
Queens (D16-20)- New Kingdom
Queens (D21-29)- Late Period


Officials, Priesthood etc.
Viziers (New Kingdom)
High Priests of Amun
God's Wives of Amun
High Priests of Ptah
Viceroys of Nubia
Who's who of New Kingdom

Amarna Period
Queen Nefertiti
inscriptions Queen Nefertiti.
Queen Kiya

Tombs at Amarna
Houses at Amarna

Valley of the Kings,
Valley of the Queens
Theban Tombs,
Tombs at Abydos
Tombs at El Kab
Tombs in Aswan
Early dynastic Saqqara
New Kingdom Saqqara
The Unis Cemetary

Mastabas at the Giza Plateau
Giza Mastabas 1000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 2000 cemetary
Giza Mataba 2300 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 4000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 5000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 6000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 7000 cemetary

Mummy Caches
Tomb DB320
Tomb KV35


(23 years, ca 2437 – 2414 BCE)
Horus name: Weser-ib
Nebty name: Weser-m-nebty
Golden Falcon name: Netjer-nub-sekhem
Nomen: Khafre
(from digitalegypt)

Greek: Chephren (Khephren)

Son of Khufu. Younger brother of Prince Kawab and Pharaoh Djedefre. It is not known who Khafre's mother was, but he did hold Queen Meritites in high regard as shown in  this inscription:
Kings-wife, his beloved, devoted to Horus, Mertitytes.
King's-wife, his beloved, Mertitytes; beloved of the Favorite of
the Two Goddesses; she who says anything whatsoever and it is done
for her.  Great in the favor of Snefr[u] ; great in the favor
of Khuf[u] , devoted to Horus, honored under Khafre. Merti[tyt]es.
[Breasted; Ancient Records]

Khafre is thought to be the son of Khufu and Queen Meritites by some becuase of this inscription. He must have been a younger son, as his older brother Kawab seems to have been the intended heir of Khufu and upon Khufu's death the throne went to Khafre's brother Djedefre.

Several important positions in the country were filledd by close relatives of Khafre. The position of Vizier was fulfilled by the Princes Nefermaat, Ankhhaf and Minkhaf. Nefermaat was a grandson of Pharaoh Snefru, Ankhaf was a son of Snefru and Minkhaf was a son of Khufu. So this influential position was held by a cousin, an uncle and a brother,
Similarly Akhethotep, married to Meritites - daughter of Khufu - and hence a brother-in-law of Khafre served as director of the palace at some point, quite possibly during the reign of Khafre.

Khufu may have had at least five wives. It is not entirely clear of Meresankh II and Khamerenebty I were wives of Khufu. Queens like Henukehedjet and Personet are not well attested either. Henukehedjet was the mother of Prince Sekhemkare who is thought to be a son of Khafre. Personet was the mother of Prince Nikaure and is known from her own tomb which is dated to the reign of Khafre.

Not much is known about the reign of Khafre aside from his building projects. Khafre is the owner of the second largest pyramid at Giza,  avalley temple, a mortuary temple and well as the sphinx.

Pyramid at Giza. The Egyptian name of the pyramid was Wer(en)-Khafre which means "Khafre is Great.
The pyramid complex


Khafre's pyramid, the quarry from which stones were cut, and the sarcophagus.
(Images from egyptarchive)

Subsidiary Pyramid - GII a
It is not clear who was buried there. Sealings have been found of a King's eldest son of his body etc and the Horus name of Khafre.

Valley Temple
The valley temple of Khafre was located closer to the Nile and would have stood right next to the Sphinx temple. Inscriptions from the entrance way have been found which mention Hathor and Bubastis. Blocks have been found showing the partial remains of an inscription with the Horus name of Khafre (Weser-ib).

Valley Temple of Khafre (Photo: Jon Bodsworth)

Mariette discovered statues of Khafre in 1860. Several were found in a well in the floor and were headless. But other complete statues were found as well.

Statue of the King from the museum in Cairo
(Photo: Jon Bodsworth)

Mortuary Temple
The mortuary temple was located very close to the pyramid. From the mortuary temple come fragments of maceheads inscribed with Khafre's name as well as some stone vessels.

A ceremonial macehead with Khafre's name.

Great Sphinx and Sphinx Temple.
The sphinx is said to date to the time of Khafre. A temple dedicated to Haremakhet was erected by Khafre. It was located right in front of the paws of the Sphinx.


The sphinx in front of Khafre's pyramid (left) and the SPhinx seen from the side (right)
(photos by conorp; see conorp's website for high resolution pictures)

  • Meresankh II (?) Daughter of Khufu and possibly wife to her (half-)brother Khafre
  • Meresankh III, Held many titles among which great one of the hetes-scepter, King’s Wife, Priestess of Bapef, Priestess of Thoth, etc. Daughter of Kawab and Hetepheres II. Mother of Prince Nebemakhet. Meresankh is known to have owned estates which were overseen by her steward Khemetnu. Her tomb was G 7530+7540. She lived into the reign of Shepseskhaf.
  • Khamerernebty I (?), Great of Praises, Great one of the hetes-scepter, God’s Daughter, Mother of the Dual King, Priestess of Tjadjepef, Priestess of Thoth, etc. Possibly a daughter of Khufu (not certain), possibly a wife of Khafre. Known to be the mother of Menkaure. According to S. Roth (2004?) the first queen to be depicted with "a vulture headdress, uraeus brow adornment, and papyrus sceptre with ankh design."
  • Hekenu-hedjet (?), Great one of the hetes-scepter, King’s Wife, Priestess of Bapef, etc. Mother of Prince Sekhemkare. Probably wife of Khafre.
  • Per[senet] (?) Great one of the hetes-scepter, King’s Wife and King’s Daughter of his Body. Possibly a daughter of Khufu and wife to Khafre. Buried in mastaba G 8156 (= LG 88). Mother of Prince Nikaure.

  • Nebemakhet. King’s son of his body, Chief Justice and Vizier, etc.
    Son of Khafre and Meresankh III. Nebemakhet is mentioned in Meresankh's tomb G 7530-7540). Buried in G 8172 (Lepsius  86)? Two tombs are ascribed to Nebemakhet according to Porter ad Moss: LG 12 in the Quarry cemetary west of the second pyramid, and LG 86 in the central field. Married to Nubhotep, Prophetess of Hathor Mistress-of-the-Sycamore in all her places, etc. Mentioned in the tomb of his brother Duaenre.
  • Du(ae)nre King's Son of his body. Son of Khafre and Meresankh III. Buried in Mastaba G 5110. Served as Vizier during the reign of his brother Menkaure. Duaenre is mentioned in the tomb of Meresankh III.
  • Niuserre(Neuserre) King’s son of his body, Chief lector-priest of his father, Treasurer of the King of Lower Egypt, etc.
    Son of Khafre and Meresankh III. Buried in Mastaba G 8140. His tomb was not finished.
  • Khenterka. Son of Meresankh III? Khenterka is depicted in Meresankh's tomb. No title is given for the prince.
  • Ankhmare (Ankhemre). King's eldest son of his body, Chief Justice and Vizier (of Menkaure), Treasurer of his father the King of Lower Egypt, etc. Brother of Nebemakhet mentioned in G 8172.
  • Iunmin King's eldest son of his body, Chief Justice and Vizier (of Menkaure), etc.
    Possibly a son of Khafre; Iunmin was married to the lady Khamerernebti. Tomb G 8080 (= LG 92)
  • Iunre (Yunre). Eldest son of his body of Khafre, the King of Lower and Upper Egypt, Chief lector-priest of his father, Overseer of all works, etc. Buried in Mastaba G 8466, in a cemetery west of the second pyramid. Prince Iu(e)nre dates to the reign of Khafre.   
  • Menkaure. Son and successor of Khafre. Son of Queen Khamerernebty I.
  • Sekhemkare. King’s eldest son of his body, Chief Justice and Vizier
    Son of Khafre and Queen Henukehedjet. Buried in G 8154 (= LG 89). Probably served as Vizier under Userkaf and Sahure. Married to Lady Khufu[...], a royal acquaintance.
  • Nikaure: Nikaure is known from an inscription giving his last will and testament. Nikaure leaves a lot of his estates to his wife, the king's confidante Nekennebti. The rest of the estate is divided among his son Nekure (Jr), his daughter Hetepheres, and his son Kennebtiwer. According to Porter and Moss Nikaure held the titles King’s eldest son of his body, Chief Justice and
    Vizier. His wife Nekennebti (Nikanebti) was a prophetess of Hathor Mistress-of-the-Sycamore in all her places, and of Neith, etc. Nikaure is said to be a son of Khafre and Queen Personet. Tomb: LG 87 (G 8158).
  • Akhre. Eldest King's Son. Possibly a son of Khafre. Buried in Giza (tomb H4) - Dodson/Hilton.
  • Babaf (Khnembaf in some publications) King’s son, Hereditary prince, Assistant of Duau, etc. Buried in a cemetery west of the second pyramid (G 8250). Possibly son of Khufu and hence possibly a brother of Khafre.

  • Shepseskau. Sister of Nebemakhet and hence a daughter of Khafre and Meresankh III. Mentioned in G 8172.
  • Nubhotep. Wife of Nebemakhet. It is possible she was also a daughter of Khafre. Mentioned in G 8172.
  • Rekhetre. King’s daughter of his body, King’s wife, etc. A daughter of Khafre and likely wife of Menkaure. Her tomb was found in Giza in a 4th dynasty pyramid city east of the tomb of Khentkaues. (discovery by Selim Hassan in ca. 1935.) Mastaba G 8530.
  • Hemetre (?). King's eldest daughter of his body, Prophetess of HatHor, etc. Possibly a daughter of Khafre. Known from a rock-cut temple at Giza. Mastaba G 8464, a mastaba in a cemetery west of the second pyramid.
  • Khamernebty II. King’s eldest daughter of his body, King’s Wife, Seer of Horus and Seth, etc.
    Wife of Menkaure, daughter of Khafre and Khamerernebty I. Although no inscriptions were found, it has been suggested she was buried in Pyramid IIIc (one of the smaller pyramids near Menkaure's pyramid). Alternatively she may have been buried in mastaba G 8978. It has been suggested that Khamerernebty I started the tomb and that it was finished by Khamerernebty II. (cf.
  • [...] Daughter of Khafre buried in Mastaba G 8250.

Other individuals known from Khafre's reign:

Princess Nefertkau.
Daughter of Snefru and mother of the Vizier Nefermaat. G 7050.

Prince Nefermaat (II).  King’s son, Hereditary prince, Overlord of Nekheb, etc. Vizier of Khafre. G 7060.
Son of Princess Nefertkau and hence a grandson of Pharaoh Snefru.

Son of the Vizier Nefermaat II and great-grandson of Seneferu. Sneferu-khaf may have lived into the ealry 5th dynasty.
Treasurer of the King of Lower Egypt, Herdsman of Apis, etc.Tomb G 7070

Prince Minkhaf King’s son of his body, Chief Justice and Vizier of Khafre, etc. G 7430+7440.
Son of Khufu and possibly Queen Henutsen (based on the fact that Queen Henutsen is mentioned in the tomb).

Prince Ankhhaf
Ankhaf was Vizier under Khafre. Married to a lady called Hetepheres, who is not buried in this mastaba as it only has one burial shaft. Ankhaf and Hetepheres were both children of Seneferu, hence they were (half-) brother and sister. Parents of Ankhaf were Snefru and a minor Queen. G 7510. Attested in his tomb are Hetepheres (wife of Ankh-haf), Snefru, Hetepheres I, and some others who may or may not date to this time period.

Prince Duaenhor
King’s son of his body, Companion of his father. Probably a son of Kawab and Hetepheres II. Lived during the reigns of Khafre en Menkaure. Buried in G 7550 (LG 58)

Akhethotep Titles: Prophet of Khufu, Sole companion, Director of the Palace, etc.,
Akhethotep was married to Princess Meritiotes, who had the titles King’s daughter of his body, Prophetess of Khufu, Hathor, and Neith, etc. Akhethotep and Meritiotes likely date to the time period from Khufu to Khephren. Meritiotes was likely the daughter of Khufu and Queen Meritiotes I. Akhethotep and his wife were buried in G 7650.

Nefer (Nufer) Overseer of scribes of the crews, Director of a crew of recruits, Overseer of the House of Weapons, etc.
Nefer served under Pharaoh Khafre. He was married to the lady Meresankh. Tomb: G 2110

Khemetnu -  Overseer of funerary priests (Imy-r Hm[w]-kA), Steward (Imy-r pr), Royal purifying Priest (Wab-nswt ), Scribe (Sesh) Khemetnu was an official from the household of Queen Meresankh III. He is mentioned in her tomb and was buried nearby.
Khemetnu the Younger? -  Steward (imy-r pr), Overseer of funerary priests (Imy-r Hm[w]-kA), Scribe (Sesh) . It's not clear if this is a son of Khemetnu (with the same name) or if this person is identical to Khemetnu.

Rery - Funerary priest (Hm-kA), Director of dining pavillion (xrp sH) Official known from the tomb of Queen Meresankh III.

Katjesu -  Funerary priest (Hm-kA). Official known from the tomb of Queen Meresankh III.

Rehay  Outline painter (Qdwt), Painter (sS qd[t]) Official known from the tomb of Queen Meresankh III.

Ptahshepses - Inspector of funerary priests (interior chapel) (sHD Hmw-kA) Official known from the tomb of Queen Meresankh III.
Nykauptah -  Funerary priest (hm-kA) (interior chapel) Official known from the tomb of Queen Meresankh III.


  • Dodson, Hilton The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, London 2004
  • Dows Dunham and William Kelly Simpson, Giza Mastabas Vol. 1: The Mastaba of Queen Mersyankh III
  • N-C. Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt
  • Porter and Moss, Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings; Part III; Download from

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