Ancient Egypt


Page by Anneke Bart


Kings and Queens

4th dynasty
Seneferu, Khufu, Khafre, Menkaure, Djedefre, etc.

11th dynasty
Kings named Mentuhotep and Intef

12th dynasty
Amenemhet I - IV,
Senusret I-III

18th dynasty
Amenhotep I-IV,
Tuthmosis I-IV, Akhenaten, Tutankhamen, Aye, Horemheb, etc.

19th dynasty
Sety I-II, Ramesses I-II, Merenptah, Amenmesses, Tawosret.

20th dynasty

Sethnakht, Ramesses III
Ramesses IV - XI

Cleopatra VII Philopator

Queens (D1-6)- Old Kingdom
Queens (D11-13) Middle Kingd.
Queens (D16-20)- New Kingdom
Queens (D21-29)- Late Period


Officials, Priesthood etc.
Viziers (New Kingdom)
High Priests of Amun
God's Wives of Amun
High Priests of Ptah
Viceroys of Nubia
Who's who of New Kingdom

Amarna Period
Queen Nefertiti
inscriptions Queen Nefertiti.
Queen Kiya

Tombs at Amarna
Houses at Amarna

Valley of the Kings,
Valley of the Queens
Theban Tombs,
Tombs at Abydos
Tombs at El Kab
Tombs in Aswan
Early dynastic Saqqara
New Kingdom Saqqara
The Unis Cemetary

Mastabas at the Giza Plateau
Giza Mastabas 1000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 2000 cemetary
Giza Mataba 2300 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 4000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 5000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 6000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 7000 cemetary

Mummy Caches
Tomb DB320
Tomb KV35


(image of Khufu from egyptarchive)

(23 years, ca. 2470 – 2447 BCE)
Horus name: Medjedu
Nebty name: Nebty-r-medjed
Golden Falcon name: Bikwy-nub
Nomen: (Khnum-)Khufu
(from digitalegypt)

Greek: Cheops (Kheops)

Son of Seneferu and Hetepheres I. Khufu was the son of the previous ruler and there seem to have been no irregularities in the succession. Manetho called Khufu Suphis II and accorded him a reign of 63 years. Modern egyptologists give him a reign of about 23 years. Khufu established the royal necropolis in Giza. He built the great pyramid, erected a mortuary temple and during his reign we see many members of the royal family and high ranking courtiers with mastabas in the cemetaries near the pyramids.

Khufu seems to have inherited a prosperous country from his father Snefru. Khufu was likely married to Queen Meritites and Queen Henutsen. Meritites (sometime written Meritiotes or Merytiotes) was the mother of the heir to the throne Prince Kawab. Kawab had a double mastaba with his wife the Princess Hetepheres II near his father's pyramid. He passed away before his father did and it has been suggested that Kawab was the victim of foul play. Possibly being murdered by or at the order of his brother Djedefre. There is however no real evidence for this scenario. Kawab's widow Hetepheres would eventually marry Djedefre and Kawab's daughter Meresankh III became queen when her uncle Khafre ascended the throne.

Khufu's sons Djedefre and Khafre ruled Egypt after their father. Other sons of Khufu held important positions at court during the reigns of their brothers. Minkhaf and Khufukhaf (I) served as Vizier at some point.
Papyrus Westcar is a collection of stories as told by Khufu's sons. The first story is damaged and the son is not known, but thought to be Djedefre. The other stories are told by Khafre, Bauefre and Hardjedef. The papyrus dates to the Hyksos period, but seems to be based on older versions that may date back to the Middle Kingdom (12th dynasty). For more detailed information see  For a thorough transliteration and translation including comments see

At court we see several of Khufu's brothers and other relatives. His brothers Prince Ankhaf,  Prince Kanefer served as Vizier at some point, while his cousin Nefermaat and Nefermaat's sons Hemiunu and Sneferu-khaf continued to provide service to Egypt.

From Khufu's reign we have:

The Sinai inscription:
Khufu is shown wearing the double crown.

Inventory stela:

The district of the Sphinx of Harmakhis (Hr-m-y' kw t) is on the south
of the house of Isis, Mistress of the Pyramid; on the north of Osiris,
Lord of Rosta (R3-st3). The writings of the goddess of Harmakhis,
were brought, in order to investigate. —
may he grow; may he live forever and ever, looking toward the east.

Live the Horus: Medjer (Md[r]), King of Upper and Lower Egypt:
Khufu, who is given life. He found the house of Isis, Mistress of the
Pyramid, beside the house of the Sphinx of [Harmakhis] on the northwest
of the house of Osiris, Lord of Rosta (R3-st3w). He built his
pyramid beside the temple of this goddess, and he built a pyramid for
the king's-daughter Henutsen (Hnwt-sn) beside this temple.
[Breasted; ancient Records]

The Great Pyramid Complex:
Great Pyramid at Giza was known in ancient times as Akhet-Khufu which means Khufu’s Horizon. The pyramid complex includes three subsidiary pyramids, sometimes called Queen's pyramids.  These smaller pyramids are sometimes lbeled as G Ia, G Ib and G Ic:
G Ia Pyramid of Queen Mother Hetepheres I?
The northern most queen's pyamid fas first thought to have belonged to Meritites. But on the basis of Lehner's work it is now believed that this pyramid was made for the Queen-Mother Hetepheres I.  This pyramid came with a small mortuary temple and a boat pit. Only ruins remain of the temple and the no boat was fo in the pit. No sarcophagus was found in the pyramid. Funerary equipment for HEtepheres was found in G 7000X
G Ib Pyramid of Queen Meritites?
This pyramid had a boat pit and a small mortuary temple. It is not known who this pyramid was meant for, but it is possible that the pyramid belonged to Queen Meritites.
G Ic Pyramid of Queen Henutsen?
This pyramid had no boat pit. It is thought to belong to Queen Henutsen. The mortuary temple may have been started as late as the reign of Shepseskaf. On a stela Henutsen is referred to as the Kings Daughter. It's not clear whose daughter she was. Some experts have pointed out that G Ic was not part of the original pyramid complex of Khufu (Janosi). It has been suggested that the pyramid was added during the reign of Khafre. Some have suggested (Stadelmann for instance) that Khafre is identical to Prince Khufukhaf I. If so, Khafre could have been a son of Khufu and Henutsen and he could have added his mother's pyramid to his father's complex.


The pyramid of Khufu, and the sarcophagus in the burial chamber.
Click on image to see larger picture. Images from egyptarchive.

  • Merytiotes I, Great one of the hetes-cepter of Seneferu, Great one of the hetes-cepter of Khufu, (Beloved) King’s Wife, attendant of Horus, Consort of the one of the Two Ladies. Possibly buried in pyramid G-Ib. Merytiotes was the mother of Prince Kawab and also likely the mother of the Prince Hardjedef and Queen Meritites II.
  • ? Henutsen Possibly a wife of Khufu. Possibly buried in pyramid G-Ic.  Possibly the mother of Prince Khufukhaf I and Prince Minkhaf.
  • ? Nefertkau This royal lady was buried in mastaba G 7050. She was a daughter of Snefru and was the mother of Prince Nefermaat and the grand-mother of Snefrukhaf. Nefertkau is never explicitly mentioned as a wife of Khufu, but as her son in a king's son of his body, it is possible she married her brother Khufu. Reisner refers to her as Queen Nefertkau in some of his works. Dodson and Hilton however do not list her among the wives of Khufu.

  • Kawab. Eldest King’s Son of his body, possibly intended heir of Khufu. Married to Hetepheres II, his (half-?) sister. Kawab and Hetepheres seem to have been the parents of Prince Duaenhor, Prince Mindjedef, Prince Kaemsekhem and Princess-Queen Meresankh III

Kawab with Hetepheres and Meresankh
  • Djedefre. Son of Khufu and his immediate successor. Married Hetepheres II and Khentetka.
  • Khafre. Son of Khufu and possibly Queen Henutsen. Followed his brother Djedefre on the throne, although there is a possibility that his newphew(s) Baka and / or Setka may have served as pharaoh as well.
  • Hordjedef. King’s Son of his Body, Count, Keeper of Nekhen, etc.. Known from papyrus Westcar, buried in Giza: G7210 and 7220. A book of wisdom was attributed to him. The inscriptions in his tomb may have been damaged by an enemy, but a cult was established for Hordjedef in Saqqara.
  • Minkhaf. Eldest King’s Son and Vizier. Buried in Giza G7430 and 7440. Queen Henutsen is mentioned in the tomb and may be Minkhaf's mother. In 7440 a beaded dress was found. The main body of the dress consists of faience beads strung in a lozenge pattern. A line of dark blue cylinder beads marks the division between the skirt and the bodice. The halter-shaped bodice consists of alternating rows of cylinder beads and the lozenge pattern. Light and dark blue floral beads hang from the bottom edge of the garment.
  • Babaef, King’s Son. Son of Khufu. Buried in Giza G 5230. Also called Khnum-baf.
  • Bauefre, King’s Son. Son of Khufu according to papyrus Westcar. His name is written in a cartouche in the Wadi Hammamat. Some have suggested Bauefre is identical to Babaef.
  • Khufukhaf I. King’s Son of his Body, Vizier. Owned double mastaba in Giza (G 7130-7140). Married to Nefertkau and father to Khufukhaf II. Some have speculated Khufukhaf later took the throne as Khafre (but this is not commonly accepted it seems). An image of Khufukhaf and his wife can be found on the gizapyramids site click here Possibly a son of Queen Henutsen.
  • Horbaef. King’s Son. Probably a son of Khufu. Buried in Giza G 7420. Horbaf shared a mastaba with Queen Meritites II (The Mastaba complex G 7420 - 7430)

  • Neferetiabet. King’s Daughter, possibly daughter of Khufu. Had a tomb in Giza: G 1225.
  • Hetepheres II. King’s Wife, Great of Scepter, King’s Daughter of his Body. Daughter of Khufu. Married to Prince Kawab, and later to pharaoh Djedefre. She may also have married Khafre after the death of Djedefre.
  • Merytiotes II (Meritites). King’s Daughter of his Body. Married to Akhethotep (Director of the Palace). Shared a tomb with her husband in Giza ( G 7650).
  • Meresankh II. King’s Daughter of his Body, King’s Wife and Great of Scepter. Owned mastaba G 7410

Other individuals known from this time period:


Wepemnefert Titles: King’s son, Prophet of Heqet, heka-priest of  Mehyt, Overseer of Royal Scribes, Royal Architect, etc. Temp. Khufu. Buried in G 1201.  A slab stela of the prince is in the Hearst museum collection.

Kaem-Ah (Ka-m-aha) Titles: King’s son, Overseer of the phylai of Upper Egypt, Greatest of the Ten of Upper Egypt. Buried in G 1223.

Yunu Titles: King’s son, Overseer of the phylai of Upper Egypt, Greatest of the Ten of Upper Egypt. Temp. Khufu. Buried in G 4150.

It is not clear if the title of King's Son should be taken literally here. The title seems to have been bestowed as an honorary title. If these men were really the sons of a King, then they could also have been sons of Snefru and as contemporaries of Khufu served in their priestly capacities during Khufu's reign.

Army, public works

 Titles: Overseer of commissions, Director of bowmen. Buried in G 1203. Probably from the time of Khufu. A reserve head from his tomb is in the Hearst museum collection.  A statue which probably depicts Kanufer, Overseer of commissions, Director of bowmen, etc., and a woman named Iynefert, Prophetess of Hathor in all her beautiful places, etc. is now in the Louvre. Louvre, A 120 [E.6854]. [PM VIII]

Iny Title: Director of cattle-herdsmen and the pastures. Buried in G 1235.


Several sons and grandsons of Sneferu continued to serve the palace during the reign of Khufu. A handful of other individuals are known to us from thier tombs. Below is a list of some people one could have found at Khufu's court.

Prince Kanefer,  Son of Snefru.
Second Vizier of Snefru, continued to serve Khufu. (A History of Ancient Egypt By Nicolas-Christophe Grimal - pg 68)

Hemiunu Titles: King’s son of his body, Chief Justice and Vizier, etc. Khufu's second Vizier (A History of Ancient Egypt By Nicolas-Christophe Grimal - pg 68)
Buried in G 4000. Hemiunu was the son of Prince Nefermaet and his wife Itet and the grandson of Snefru. A statue of Hemiunu is now in the Pelizaeus Museum in Hildesheim. Hemiunu is depicted in a limestone statue, ca 1.5 meters high.
"[1] Hereditary Count, Vizier), Sealbearer of the King of Lower Egypt, Guardian of Nekhen, Mouth of all (people) of Pe"
"[2] Priest of Bastet, Priest of Shesemtet, Priest of the Ram of Mendes"
"[3] Staff of Apis, Staff of the White Bull, who loves his lord"
"[4] Eldest of the Palace, 'Greatest of the Five' (in) the House of Thoth, who loves his lord, the Sole Friend"
"[5] Overseer of the Royal Scribes, ...(?), Director of the Singers of Upper and Lower Egypt, Overseer of all royal works, Bodily Son of the King, Hem-iunu."
The "Overseer of all Royal Works" has lead people to believe that Hemiunu was involved in the construction of the Pyramids.
See: Global Egyptian Museum

Khemtnu (Khemten) Titles: King’s wab-priest, Prophet of Khufu, Steward of Kawab, Hetepheres II and Meresankh III, etc. Temp. Khufu to end of Dyn. 4 or early Dyn. 5. It's hard to say if Khemtnu was a steward to Kawab, Hetepheres and Meresankh or if he served as a steward in their cult. If he did personally serve the royal family, he is one of very few palace officials known to us. Buried in G 5210.

Akhethotep Titles: Prophet of Khufu, Sole companion, Director of the Palace, etc.,
Akhethotep was married to Princess Meritiotes, who had the titles King’s daughter of his body, Prophetess of Khufu, Hathor, and Neith, etc. Akhethotep and Meritiotes likely date to the time period from Khufu to Khephren. Meritiotes was likely the daughter of Khufu and Queen Meritiotes I. Akhethotep and his wife were buried in G 7650.

Nefermaat II Time of Seneferu – Khufu/Khephren?
King’s son, Hereditary prince, Overlord of Nekheb, etc. (Vizier of Khephren.) Buried in G 7060
Son of Nefertkau I (G7050) and grandson of Seneferu.

Son of the Vizier Nefermaat II and great-grandson of Seneferu. Sneferu-khaf may have lived into the ealry 5th dynasty.
Treasurer of the King of Lower Egypt, Herdsman of Apis, etc.Tomb G 7070

Prince Ankhaf     Time of Sneferu – Khafre
Ankhaf was Vizier under Khafre. Married to a lady called Hetepheres, who is not buried in this mastaba as it only has one burial shaft. Ankhaf and Hetepheres were both children of Seneferu, hence they were (half-) brother and sister. Parents of Ankhaf were Snefru and a minor Queen. G 7510

Prince Seshat-sekhentiu    
Chief lector-priest from the time of Khufu. Tomb: G2120

Khentka Titles: King’s son [of his body], Sole companion. Buried in G 2130. Possibly dates to the time of Khufu.

Khufunakht Title: Royal acquaintance. Buried in G 1205. 

Nefer(t) Titles: Royal acquaintance (woman). Probably dates to the time of Khufu or later, based on a block with masons' graffito bearing the name of Khufu. Buried in G 1207.


Dodson, Hilton The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, London 2004
N-C. Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt
Porter and Moss, Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings; Part III; Download from
Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Statues, Reliefs and PaintingsVolume VIII, Parts 1 and 2: Objects of Provenance Not Known: Statues  Online Version (April 2008)

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