Ancient Egypt


Page by Anneke Bart


Kings and Queens

4th dynasty
Seneferu, Khufu, Khafre, Menkaure, Djedefre, etc.

11th dynasty
Kings named Mentuhotep and Intef

12th dynasty
Amenemhet I - IV,
Senusret I-III

18th dynasty
Amenhotep I-IV,
Tuthmosis I-IV, Akhenaten, Tutankhamen, Aye, Horemheb, etc.

19th dynasty
Sety I-II, Ramesses I-II, Merenptah, Amenmesses, Tawosret.

20th dynasty

Sethnakht, Ramesses III
Ramesses IV - XI

Cleopatra VII Philopator

Queens (D1-6)- Old Kingdom
Queens (D11-13) Middle Kingd.
Queens (D16-20)- New Kingdom
Queens (D21-29)- Late Period


Officials, Priesthood etc.
Viziers (New Kingdom)
High Priests of Amun
God's Wives of Amun
High Priests of Ptah
Viceroys of Nubia
Who's who of New Kingdom

Amarna Period
Queen Nefertiti
inscriptions Queen Nefertiti.
Queen Kiya

Tombs at Amarna
Houses at Amarna

Valley of the Kings,
Valley of the Queens
Theban Tombs,
Tombs at Abydos
Tombs at El Kab
Tombs in Aswan
Early dynastic Saqqara
New Kingdom Saqqara
The Unis Cemetary

Mastabas at the Giza Plateau
Giza Mastabas 1000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 2000 cemetary
Giza Mataba 2300 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 4000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 5000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 6000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 7000 cemetary

Mummy Caches
Tomb DB320
Tomb KV35


Queen Maathorneferure

Great King’s Wife (hmt-niswt-wrt)
Mistress of the Two Lands (hnwt-t3wy),
Daughter of the Great Ruler of Hatti.

Maathorneferure and her father Hattusilis in Egypt. (Based on a drawing by Lepsius)

The entire stela as drawn by Lepsius. See
Abt III, Band 7, Bl. 196

Maathorneferure was the daughter of the Hittite King Hattusilis III and Queen Puduheba. Her mother was a noble lady possibly of Hurrian descent. Puduheba was the daughter of a priest of Ishtar named Bentip-shar. Paduheba and Bentip-shar are Hurrian names.
Maathorneferure had at least two brothers: Nerikkaili was crown prince and eldest son of Hattusilis, and Tudhaliyas who would later become king. According to later folklore, Maathorneferure also had a younger sister who also married Ramesses II. This is recorded on the so-called Bentresh stela which dates to a much later period. On the Bentresh stela Queen Maathorneferure is referrred to as Queen Neferure.

Maathorneferure married Ramesses in year 34. Her Hittite name is not known. She was apparently given the name Maat-hor-neferure upon her marriage to Ramesses II. Her name means "Neferure, she who sees Horus".

She is thought to have had a daughter named Neferure. She first lived at the royal palace at Pi-Ramesse. Records indicate that Maathorneferure later lived in the royal harem at Mi-wer (Gurob). There is a small (broken) statue of her next to the knee of Ramesses.

Maathorneferure at Tanis.

Faience Plaque with Maathorneferure's name Digitalegypt

Mention of Queen Maathorneferure on a papyrus from Gurob Digitalegypt
partial text:
[...] small bag
the king's wife Maathorneferure (may she live) (the daughter of) the great ruler of Khatti
[...] Dayt garment of 28 cubits, 4 palms, breadth 4 cubits, [bag?] of 14 cubits, 2 palms, breath 4 cubits - 2 items [...] palms, breath 4 cubits

The marriage stela of Ramses II

Thou didst command the land of Kheta, thou takest captive the people [...] with all their possessions, the eldest daughter being at their head, to [...] before thy beautiful face. Thou commandest them [...] under thy feet forever and ever, together with the whole land of Kheta. While thou shinest upon the throne of Re, every land is under [thy] feet, forever.
    [...] The chief of Kheta sent, asking of me permanent peace. Never did he [...] for them. now [afterward][...]  under the great fame of the Lord of the Two Lands, King Ramses (II).
Then spake the chief of the land of Kheta to his [army] and his nobles, saying: "Now is our land devastated; Sutekh [is] our lord [to protect] us, (but) [he has] not [...] fighting with them. We have been taken captive with all our possessions; my eldest daughter being before them [...] "
    Then they [came] with [their] possessions, and [their] splendid [gifts] before them, of silver and gold, marvels many and great, horses to [...] them, [...] living things [...] .
    [...] to delight the heart of his majesty, saying: "Behold, the great chief of Kheta comes, bringing his eldest daughter, bearing much tribute, being everything [...] . The chief of Kheta, together with the chief of [Kode and people] of Kheta, are bringing them. They have traversed many mountains and difficult ways, that they might reach the boundaries of his majesty [...] " His majesty received the [word] [...] [in] the palace, with joy of heart.
    When he heard such strange and unexpected matters[...] he commanded the army and the princes to receive in front of them in haste.
  Then his majesty took counsel [for] the army with his own heart, saying: "What are these newcomers like! When there goes not a messenger to Zahi in these days of flood on the upper [heights] in winter." Then he offered an oblation for [...] and for Sutekh. Then he came [pray]ing, saying: "Heaven is [...] and earth is under [thy feet]. That which thou commandest is all that happens. Thou /// to make the flood and the cold upon the [heights] [...] which thou hast assigned to me, King Ramses (II)." Then his father, Sutekh, heard every [wor]d [...]
   [...] his army came, their limbs being sound, and they were long in stride [...] The daughter of the great chief of Kheta marched in [front] of the army [...] of his majesty in following her. They were mingled with foot and horse of Kheta; they were warriors as well as regulars; they ate and they drank [not] fighting face to face [...] between them, after the manner of the god himself, King Ramses (II). The great chiefs of every land came; they were bowed down, turning back in fear, when they saw [his majesty; the chief of] Kheta [came] among them, [to seek the favor] of King Ramses (II).
(James Henry Breasted Ancient Records of Egypt, Part Three, § 415ff.)

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