Ancient Egypt


Page by Anneke Bart

Kings and Queens

4th dynasty
Seneferu, Khufu, Khafre, Menkaure, Djedefre, etc.

11th dynasty
Kings named Mentuhotep and Intef

12th dynasty
Amenemhet I - IV,
Senusret I-III

18th dynasty
Amenhotep I-IV,
Tuthmosis I-IV, Akhenaten, Tutankhamen, Aye, Horemheb, etc.

19th dynasty
Sety I-II, Ramesses I-II, Merenptah, Amenmesses, Tawosret.

20th dynasty

Sethnakht, Ramesses III
Ramesses IV - XI

Cleopatra VII Philopator

Queens (D1-6)- Old Kingdom
Queens (D11-13) Middle Kingd.
Queens (D16-20)- New Kingdom
Queens (D21-29)- Late Period

Officials, Priesthood etc.
Viziers (New Kingdom)
High Priests of Amun
God's Wives of Amun
High Priests of Ptah
Viceroys of Nubia
Who's who of New Kingdom

Amarna Period
Queen Nefertiti
inscriptions Queen Nefertiti.
Queen Kiya

Tombs at Amarna
Houses at Amarna

Valley of the Kings,
Valley of the Queens
Theban Tombs,
Tombs at Abydos
Tombs at El Kab
Tombs in Aswan
Early dynastic Saqqara
New Kingdom Saqqara
The Unis Cemetary

Mastabas at the Giza Plateau
Giza Mastabas 1000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 2000 cemetary
Giza Mataba 2300 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 4000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 5000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 6000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 7000 cemetary

Mummy Caches
Tomb DB320
Tomb KV35

Merenptah (Baenre)

(ca. 1212-1201 BC)

Horus name: Kanakht Haiemmaat
Nebty name: Iribauertaentjemhu
Golden Falcon name: Nebsenedjaashefit
Prenomen: Baenre
Nomen: Merenptah

Merneptah was the 13th on of Ramses II.
He was the son of Ramses II and Queen Isetnofret. He had two older full brothers named Ramses and Khaemwaset. Ramses served as a General in the army of the King. Khaemwaset was First Prophet of Ptah in Memphis and was an important person at court. Both elder brothers Ramesses and Khaemwaset served crown-prince before their brother Merneptah. Merneptah also had two full sisters named Bintanath and Isetnofret.


Stela from Saqqara showing Prince Merenptah.

Wives of Merneptah:

Queen Isetnofret. It is not clear which of his female relatives this is. Merneptah had a sister named Isetnofret as well as a niece, the daughter of Prince Khaemweset. Either one of these women could be Queen Isetnofret, wife of Merneptah. In the temple of Gebel el Silsila Merneptah is shown with Queen Isetnofret and Prince Sety-Merneptah.

Queen Isetnofret, wife of Merenptah

Queen Bintanath. There is a statue of Merneptah which shows the Royal Daughter, Royal Sister and Great royal Wife Bintanath. The status of this lady is not certain. It is possible that Merneptah did not have a wife named Bintanath, but that the statue should be seen as usurped from the time of Ramses II.
It is however also possible that Merneptah really did have a wife named Bintanath. The experts differ on the possible identity of this Queen. It could be Merneptah’s full sister Bintanath who this statue refers to, or it could be her daughter. This daughter of Bintanath by her father Ramses II is shown in Bintananth’s tomb, and she is sometimes referred to as Bintanath II.

Queen Bint-Anath, wife of Merenptah

Children of Merneptah.

Prince Seti-Merneptah was likely the son of Merneptah and Queen Isetnofret. This prince served in the army and became Generalissimo. He also became Execitive at the head of the Two Lands. This title is usually though to mean that he became crown-prince. Seti-Merneptah took the throne as Seti II.
Prince Khaemwaset was named after his illustrious uncle. This prince is depicted in Merneptah’s war reliefs at Karnak.
Prince Merneptah was a King’s Son, a Generalissimo and also became Execitive at the head of the Two Lands. He was probably a son of Merneptah.
Princess Isetnofret (IV) is thought to have been a daughter of Merneptah. She is known from a ships log (now in Leiden).

Early years

Merneptah was heir to the throne and for all intent and purpose regent during the last 10 years of his father’s reign. He became Generalissimo after year 50 and Heir to the throne in year 55 of  his father Ramses II. The first years of Merneptah’s reign seem uneventful.

Statue of Merenptah from the Louvre

Merneptah’s excperience as a leader of the army came to good use when a coalition of Libyan and Mediterranean forces attacked Egypt in the 10th month of the fifth year of Merneptah’s reign.
The Libyan leader Meryey (Merayayuy), son of Ded (Dyd) had formed a coalition including the Sherden (Sharadena), Shekelesh (Shakarwsha), Ekwesh (Akwaysha), Luka (Rw-kw), Teresh (Twrwsha), Kekeh, and Meshwesh (Mesawasha). The attack was planned in a place called Meber (Mabara) – an unknown foreign country. This force attacked Egypt, but were repelled after fierced fighting. According to the inscriptions at Karnak and Athribis as many as 9000 of the enemy were slain.
It seems from the inscriptions that the battle was waged and the war ended within the month.

The so-called Israel Stela.
The text outlines those vanquished and the people of Israel are mentioned.

Building Activities:

Three Osiride statues of Merneptah were found at Abydos.

At Abydos Merenptah had a hawk of Amenhotep III resored. The work is dedicated by Ahmosu, Priest of Osiris and Iuiu (Yuy) First Prophet of Osiris.

Temple of Seth at Nubt contains text from year 5 of Merneptah.

Temple of Monthu at Armant contains inscriptions of Merneptah.

Rockshrine at West Silsila shows Merneptah offering to Osiris, Isis, Ramses II, Seth (?), Nephtys,  Sobek, Rattaui, Hathor and another goddess. On another wall Merneptah offers before Amun-Re, Mut, Khons, Re-Harakhti, Ptah and Hapi. In another scene the king offeres incense and libation to Atum, Montu, Amenhotep I, Onuris, Tefnut and Geb. Queen Isetnofret is shown offering before Taweret as a hippopotamus, Toth and Nut.

Merneptah before Amun
Lepsius Abt III, Band 7, bl 200

Chapel at Surarieh (near el Minia). This chapel was recorded by Lepsius. Merneptah is depicted with Ptah, Hathor and Anubis.

Merneptah is before Ptah, Hathor and Anubis. Surarieh. See Abt III, BAnd 7, Bl. 198

Burial in the King's Valley:

The Cartouche shaped sarcophagus and the mummy of Merenptah

Merenptah before Re-Harakhty

Government Officials:

Hori, Northern Vizier. Son of the High Priest of Ptah Hori, and hence a grand-son of Prince-Khaemwaset. He continued to serve until the time of Ramessses III.
Southern Vizier. Chapel of Panehesi at temple at Gebel el Silsila.
Messuy, Viceroy of Kush. Shown before Merneptah in chariot. Text on Ancient road near Aswan. It is possible that Messuy was a son of Seti-Merneptah and Takhat and hence a grandson of Merneptah. Some scholars believe that Messuy, the grandson of Merneptah would actually take the throne from his own father Seti II. There are inscriptions of Messuy showing the later addition of a useaus, showing that he did style himself as a pharaoh at some point. May have also served as Vizier.
Khaemtjitry, Viceroy of Kush at the end of Merneptah’s reign. Khaemtjitry would be appointed Vizier under the next pharaoh, Amenmesse (who may be identical to Messuy).
Ramesesemperre, Fanbearer. He is mentioned in a stela at Abydos.
Si-Ese, royal scribe and chief of the granaries (under both Ramesses II and his son Merneptah.
Simut, Scribe of the Treasury
Tjay also called To, secretary of the king for royal correspondence. Buried in TT23. Tjay was the son of Khaemteri, Scribe of the Soldiers, and Tamy. He must have married well because his wife Raya was Chief of the Harem of Sobek. His second wife was named Nebettaui.


Ahautinufer,  Scribe of the altar of the Lord of the Two Lands
Amenemheb, Royal Scribe of the Offering Table.
Hori  Head of scribes of the altar in the Temple of Millions of Years of the King of Upper and Lower Egypt Baenre-meriamun (Merneptah) in the domain of Amun in the west of Thebes, etc  He was a son of Amenemonet, Scribe of the district of the town, and Nefertari, Songstress of Amun at Karnak.
Inheretmose, Overseer of Prophets, High Solar Priest of Re in Thinis, First Prophet of Onuris. Rock-tomb et Nag el-Mashyikh (Lepidotonpolis). Wife: Sekhmet-nefert.
Mey, Leader of the festival of Amun. Inscription at Gebel el Silsila
Rama(ray), high priest of Amun, Rameses II - Merenptah. TT 283.
Wife: Tamut (name in niche in court), Tabest (name on stela in Museum in Leiden)
On the stela Ramaray is given the titles: The Prince and Count, the God's Father, clean of hands, Priest of Kamutef, Overseer of the prophets of all the gods, Third Prophet of Amun, Second Prophet of Amun, First Prophet of Amun

Roy, First Prophet of Amun before Amun-Re. Shrine at Silsila. Roy apparently inherited the position from his father Rome, and later passed it on to his son Bakenkhonsu, thereby for the first time making the position of High Priest of Amun hereditary.
Siesi , Overseer of the two granaries in the temple of Merneptah in the domain of Amun, etc. Known from a statue with cartouches of Ramesses II and Merneptah.
Yuy, Pirst Prophet of Osiris.

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