Ancient Egypt


Page by Anneke Bart


Kings and Queens

4th dynasty
Seneferu, Khufu, Khafre, Menkaure, Djedefre, etc.

11th dynasty
Kings named Mentuhotep and Intef

12th dynasty
Amenemhet I - IV,
Senusret I-III

18th dynasty
Amenhotep I-IV,
Tuthmosis I-IV, Akhenaten, Tutankhamen, Aye, Horemheb, etc.

19th dynasty
Sety I-II, Ramesses I-II, Merenptah, Amenmesses, Tawosret.

20th dynasty

Sethnakht, Ramesses III
Ramesses IV - XI

25th dynasty
Alara, Kashta, Piye,
Shabaka, Shabataka,
Taharqa, Tanutamun, etc.

Cleopatra VII Philopator

Queens (D1-6)- Old Kingdom
Queens (D11-13) Middle Kingd.
Queens (D16-20)- New Kingdom
Queens (D21-29)- Late Period


Officials, Priesthood etc.
Viziers (New Kingdom)
High Priests of Amun
God's Wives of Amun
High Priests of Ptah
Viceroys of Nubia
Who's who of New Kingdom

Amarna Period
Queen Nefertiti
inscriptions Queen Nefertiti.
Queen Kiya

Tombs at Amarna
Houses at Amarna

Valley of the Kings,
Valley of the Queens
Theban Tombs,
Tombs at Abydos
Tombs at El Kab
Tombs in Aswan
Early dynastic Saqqara
New Kingdom Saqqara
The Unis Cemetary

Mastabas at the Giza Plateau
Giza Mastabas 1000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 2000 cemetary
Giza Mataba 2300 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 4000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 5000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 6000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 7000 cemetary

Mummy Caches
Tomb DB320
Tomb KV35



Horus name: Djematawy
Nebty name: Mes-hemut
Golden Falcon name: Sasha-qenu
Prenomen: Usermaatre
Nomen: Piye
(747-716 BC)

Piye became ruler of Nubia in ca. 747 BCE. He is thought to be a son of King Kashta. This theory is based on the titles of Queen Khensa. She was a King's Sister as well as a King's daughter. She is known to be a daughter of Kashta and most likely a wife of Piye.

While Piye ruled Nubia, Egypt was divided into many smaller principalities. In the earlier years of his rule he seems to have focused mainly on Nubia itself. He had enough influence in Thebes that his sister Amenirdis I was installed as an adoratrix in the cult of Amun and as the heiress to the God's Wife Shepenwepet I. (Another theory is that Amenirdis was adopted by Shepenwepet I on Kashta's insistence.) Piye had treaties with Peftjau-awy-bast from Nen-nesut (Heracleopolis) and Nimlot from Khemenu (Hermopolis). After 740 BCE Tefnakht takes control of the area around Sais and slowly begins to expand his territories. By 728 BCE Tefnakht has expanded his sphere of influence to most of the Delta and starts on a campaign which takes him further south. Nimlot defects to Tefnakht's side, and when Tefnakht's army moves on Heracleopolis, Piye decides to act.

Piye takes his army north and defeats the combined Egyptian armies. Piye erected a victory stela commemorating these events at the temple of Amun at Gebel Barkal. This stela was discovered in 1862. The stela gives a detailed description of the events. Piye's campaign possibly took place in the 19th and 20 years of his reign. (See Morkot: The Black Pharaohs for a more in depth discussion of the campaign and alternate theories concerning the dates).

When Piye hears of Nimlot's defection and Pefjau-awy-bast's resistance to the siege, he dipatches his generals Lemersekny and Purem. The Nubian army travels north and first engages the Egyptians in a naval battle. After defeating the Egyptians they continue to Nen-nesut to come to the aid of Peftjau-awy-bast. During the ensuing battle several Egyptian leaders are killed. Sheshonq, Chief of the Ma of Per-Usir-nebdjebu (Busiris) and Prince Bakennefi of Hut-hery-ib (Athribis) are among the dead. Nimlot retreated to Khemenu, where he was besieged and defeated. There is mention of messages and gifts from Nimlot to Piye, which had no effect. Nimlot then sent his wife “the King's Wife, the King's Daughter“ Nestjent to plead their case with the wives and daughters of Piye. And only after these pleas did Piye accept Nimlot's surrender.

Piye moved further north and besieged Tefnakht, in the process killing at least one son of Tefnakht. Soon the rulers of the north surrender and offer tribute to Piye. These rulers include Iuput, Akonosh and Pediese.

Soon after these events Piye moves back to Napata, but the political landscape in Egypt had changed.

Piye was buried in El Kurru 17.

  • Tabiry, King’s Daughter and King’s Wife. Daughter of Alara and wife of Piye. She held some interesting titles: Main King’s Wife (the only other queen to hold this title was Nefertiti) and “the great one of the foreign country” (ta-aat-khesut). Buried in a pyramid at Kurru. (Dodson –Hilton, Grajetzki)     
  • Khensa King’s Daughter, King’s Sister and King’s Wife. Mentioned on a statue with Piye, and therefore associated with him. Buried in Kurru. Attested in both Nubia and Egypt. (Dodson –Hilton, Grajetzki) Known from Granite offering-stone from stair in Boston, alabaster offering-stone, various alabaster vases, all with double cartouches and varying titles,  steatite ball in Boston, silver basin in Boston (Dunham and Macadam)
  • Abar: King’s Mother, King’s Sister, Mistress of the foreign lands, Lady of Upper and Lower Egypt. Mother of King Taharqa and most likely a wife of Piye. (Dodson –Hilton, Grajetzki) Pyramid: El Kurru 53
  • Peksater, King’s Daughter and Great Royal Wife. Mentioned in Gebel Barkal, and on monuments of courtiers, Buried in Abydos. (Dodson –Hilton)
  • Neferukakashta? Wife of Pie, and possibly a daughter of Kashta. Known from a shabti (Dunham and Macadam)

Shabti of Queen Tabiry UC13220 See for more details.

  • Shabaka, Son and successor of Piye.
  • Shebitqo? Likely a son of Piye. Successor of Shabaka
  • Taharqa, Succeeds to the throne after his brother Shabaka and Shabitqo
  • Har, King’s Son. Har was the father of Lady Wadjrenes, who married the Theban nobleman Montuemhat. (Dodson –Hilton)
  • Khaliut. King’s Son, Governor of Kanad (Dodson –Hilton)


Contemporary Egyptian leaders

Many of these leaders are recorded on the Victory stela from Gebel Barkal. Additional information comes from K. Kitchen's book about the Third Intermediate Period and Morkot's Black Pharaohs.

Osorkon Chief of the Ma from 755-740. Osorkon is a contemporary of Piye, but does not actively engage Piye. The time of conflict takes place more than a decade after Osorkon's ruler over Sais

Osorkon IV Akheperre Setepenamun (730-715). King of Bubastis / Tanis. Son of King Shoshenq V and Queen Tadibast. Pharaoh Osorkon IV the area of Bubastis and Tanis in the Eastern Delta in 728 after Piye conquered Egypt. Earlier it was thought that the Osorkon mentioned by Piye was King Osorkon III, but recently Osorkon has been identified as the fourth king of that name.

Iuput II Usermaatre Setepenamun 754- 720 or 715. 23rd dynasty ruler of Tjent-remu (Leontopolis). Probably a son of King Rudamun. An inscription at Wadi Gasus mentions Year 12, Adoratrix of the God Amenirdis (I) ; year 19 the God's Wife Shepenwepet (I). This likely refers to Year 12 of Piye and year 19 of Iuput II. Amenirdis was the sister of Piye, and Shepenwepet was the aunt of Iuput II. Iuput's Queen may have been named Tent-kat[...] based on an inscription on a bronze door hinge from Tell Moqdam (Leontopolis). After Piye conquered Memphis in ca. 728 BCE, Iuput soon submitted to Piye.

Nimlot (Namart) (754 – 725) – King at Khemenu (Hermopolis). Nimlot had been closely allied with the Nubians, but as Tefnakht moved south, Nimlot defected. When Piye moved his armies into Egypt Nimlot surrendered. Nimlot was married to the King's Wife, the King's Daughter Nes-tent (-meh). It is not clear whose daughter Nestent was.
Kitchen speculates that Nimlot may have been a son of Osorkon III. Nimlot is a Libyan name which may indicate that Osorkon III decided to install one of his sons as king in Hermopolis. If this theory is correct, Nimlot would have been a brother of Takelot III, Rudamun and the God's Wife Shepenwepet I and related to Iuput II and distantly related to Peftjau-awy-bast. Nimlot was succeeded by Thutemhat.

was a local king from Heracleopolis (ca. 754 – 720 BCE). One of his queens , named Ir-bast-udja-nefu, was the daughter of King Rudamun and likely then a sister of Iuput II. She was the mother of Pediamennebnesttawy. Another queen of Peftjau-awy-bast was named Tasherenese. In 728 BCE Peftjau-awy-bast had an alliance with Piye and helped in the fight against Tefnakhtof Sais and Nimlot of Hermopolis.

Tefnakht I
held the title Chief of the Ma during the time period 740-727. In 727 Tefnakht I takes power as Tefnakht I Shepsesre. (24th dynasty) By the time Piye moved on Egypt Tefnakht had control over most of the western delta. Tefnakht turn ed his eye towards the south and at some point besieged Peftjau-awy-bast in Heracleopolis. At this point – in ca 728 – Piye moves north from Napata to engage Tefnakht. Tefnakht has to retreat before the armies of Piye, but retains his throne. Very shortly after the war with Pite, Tefnakht dies and is succeeded by Bakenrenef, who was likely his son.

Bakenrenef Wahkare: Saite King (24th dynasty) Successor of Tefnakht.

Lower ranked Princes and minor rulers mentioned on the victory stela:

  • Bakennefi and Pediese – Hereditary Princes of Athribis and Heliopolis. Bakennefi was killed at the battle of Nen-nesut. Pediese was a younger son of Bekennefi. The eldest son Nesnaisu was with his father at the battle of Nen-nesut. But Nesnaisu later inherited the smaller principality of Ka-heseb. Pediese would continue to rule Athribis.
  • Nesnaisu – A small local ruler in Ka-heseb in the Delta. Apparently an older brother of Pediese of Athribis and Heliopolis and hence a son of Bakennefi
  • Sheshonq, Chief of the Ma of Per-Usir-nebdjebu (Busiris). Killed during battle.
  • Pamiu (Pamai), son of Soshenq (IV) ruled Per-Usir-neb-Djedu (Busiris). After the death of his father Sheshonq at the battle Nen-nesut Pamiu became ruler of Busiris.
  • Djed-Amen-ef-Ankh ruled Per-Banebdjed (Mendes) and Granary of Re.
  • Ank-Hor,eldest son of Djed-Amen-ef-ankh and general. Ank-Hor was a local ruler in a small fief near Mendes.
  • Akunosh – Ruler of domain stretching from Tjeb-netjer (Sebennytos) to and Per-heby (Isidopolis) Sma-behdet (tell el-Balamun) and the sea. Akunosh may have married a Nubian lady as part of the treaty. He is known to have had a daughter named Takushit (“the Kushite”). Another daughter of Akunosh – named Nes-Bastet-Rud – is called King's Wife, but it is not clear which king she married.
  • Patjenfy (iii) (Patchenefy) – Ruled the southern route into the Delta from Pi-Sopd and granary of Inbu-hedj. May have married a Nubian princess. Remained loyal under Shabaqa and Shebitqo. His son Pekrur succeeded him in time.
  • Nakhthorneshu (Nakhthornashenu) of Per-gerer, Count and Chief of the Ma
  • Pentaweret, Chief of the Ma
  • Pentibekhenet, Chief of the Ma
  • Pedi-Hor-sema-tawy (Padihorsomtus), Prophet of Horus, Lord of Khem
  • Horbes of Per-Sekhmet-nebet-Sau and Per-Sekhmet-nebet-Rehes-sawy, Count
  • Djedkhiyu (Djedkhiu) of Khent-nefer, Count
  • Pabasa of of Ker-aha and Per-Hapy, Count.


Last edited: May 2008

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