Ancient Egypt

         

Page by Anneke Bart




 

Kings and Queens

4th dynasty
Seneferu, Khufu, Khafre, Menkaure, Djedefre, etc.

11th dynasty
Kings named Mentuhotep and Intef

12th dynasty
Amenemhet I - IV,
Senusret I-III


18th dynasty
Amenhotep I-IV,
Tuthmosis I-IV, Akhenaten, Tutankhamen, Aye, Horemheb, etc.


19th dynasty
Sety I-II, Ramesses I-II, Merenptah, Amenmesses, Tawosret.

20th dynasty

Sethnakht, Ramesses III
Ramesses IV - XI




Cleopatra VII Philopator

Queens (D1-6)- Old Kingdom
Queens (D11-13) Middle Kingd.
Queens (D16-20)- New Kingdom
Queens (D21-29)- Late Period



 

Officials, Priesthood etc.
Viziers (New Kingdom)
High Priests of Amun
God's Wives of Amun
High Priests of Ptah
Viceroys of Nubia
Who's who of New Kingdom


Amarna Period
Akhenaten
Queen Nefertiti
inscriptions Queen Nefertiti.
Queen Kiya

Smenkhare
Tutankhamen
Tombs at Amarna
Houses at Amarna

 
Tombs:
Valley of the Kings,
Valley of the Queens
Theban Tombs,
Tombs at Abydos
Tombs at El Kab
Tombs in Aswan
Early dynastic Saqqara
New Kingdom Saqqara
The Unis Cemetary

 
Mastabas at the Giza Plateau
Giza Mastabas 1000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 2000 cemetary
Giza Mataba 2300 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 4000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 5000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 6000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 7000 cemetary
 

Mummy Caches
Tomb DB320
Tomb KV35



Links

Senusret I Kheperkare


ca. 1956-1911/10 BC

Horus name: Ankh-mesut
Nebty name: Ankh-mesut
Golden Falcon name: Ankh-mesut
Prenomen: Kheper-ka-re
Nomen: Senusret



Horus Ankhmesut, Kheper-ka-Re, Senusret

Burial place: Lisht


Senusret I was the son of Amenemhat I and Neferitatenen

Wife:
Neferu III
, King's Daughter, King's Wife and King's Mother. Neferu married her brother Senusert. She is mentioned in the Story of Sinuhe. Neferu III had her own pyramid in the funerary complex of her brother/husband. It is possible that she was eventually buried in the funerary complex of her son Amenemhat II.

Son:
Amenemhat II, called Ameny in some inscriptions

Daughters:

  • Sebat, King's Daughter. Mentioned in Amenemhat II's shrine of Senusert I

The following women may be daughters of Pharaoh Senusert, but the evidence is not very definitive.

  • Itakayet (A)?. Possibly a daughter of Senusert I. Owned a pyramid in Senusert I's pyramid complex. She may not have been buried there and it is possible that this lady was actually identical to Itakayet (B) who was a daughter of Amenemhat II.
  • Neferusobek ? A possible daughter of Senusert I. Known from an inscribed bowl found near his pyramid. It is possible however that this bowl was an offering by the lady Sobekneferu, the daughter of Amenemhat III and later female ruler of Egypt.
  • Neferuptah (A)? A possible daughter of Senusert. Her name appears on an ivory wand, found near his pyramid.
  • Nensed[...]?A possible daughter of Senusert. Her name appears on a fragment of a dish, found near his pyramid


Building program

Senusert was the first king of the 12th dynasty to institute an extensive building program.

Aniba: The temple dedicated to Horus of Miam may have been founded as early as the reign of Senusret I

The Fayoum (Crocodilopolis): A fallen obelisk bears inscriptions mentioning Ankhmesut Kheperkare. Senusret is depicted before many different gods, including Horus, Amun, Isis, Nephtys and many more.


Obelisk of Senusret I, from the Fayoum
For better quality image see: Lepsius Abt II, Band 4, Bl 119

Heliopolis: Senusret erected an obelisk at the site now known as Midan el-Massala. Wilkinson lists this obelisk as one of the twelve largest standing obelisks. It measures 20.4 m / 67 ft. It is also the oldest surviving obelisk. The obelisk now stands on the site of a temple dedicated to the god Re-Harakhti. Nothing remains of this temple, but ancient records indicate that Senusert decided to build this temple in the third year of his reign. An actual plan of the temple is shown inscribed on a thin sheet of stone.


Obelisk of Senusret I, Kheperkare from Heliopolis
For better quality image see: Lepsius Abt II, Band 4, Bl 118

Hiw: Hiw is the modern name for the nome capital of Hut-sekhem (or Hut for short). The site dates back to the time of Senusert. New Kingdom papyri mention the temples at this site, but none have ever been found.

Lisht: The Pyramid Temple of Senusret I was constructed at Lisht, near that of his father. Senusret returned to the more Memphite style of pyramid complex. The temple was built against the pyramid's east face, and apparently attempted to recreate the typical mortuary temple of the 6th dynasty period. No Valley temple was ever found.
The building of the pyramid chapel was entrusted to the treasurer Meri, who is attested at the site on a mortuary stela.


White Chapel from Thebes

Memphis: Senusret and his father had a palace in this ancient city. Middle Kingdom monuments were often dismantled and reused elsewhere. When excavating a moat Sir Flinders Petrie found part of a pylon of a palace. The global Egyptian Museum states:
"These limestone fragments are carved in fine low relief and formed a part of six scenes which decorated a pylon in one of the royal palaces in Memphis.
There were six scenes, three on each side of the doorway, and they depict stages in the ceremony which took place at the investiture of the king's eldest son as heir and co-regent. These fragments formed part of a scene originally approximately 18ft above ground. Senwosret I was made co-regent in the 20th year of his father, Amenemhat I's reign, and he is shown wearing the white crown of Upper Egypt. Part of an arm, leg and the ceremonial bull's tail worn during the ritual are all that can be seen of the king himself. The vulture goddess Nekhbet hovers above him carrying the shen-ring of eternity. Five officials on the left bear objects used during the ceremony and are accompanied by a priest. In the scenes that were originally on the right the king was shown wearing the red crown of Lower Egypt." (GEM) (Image)

Thebes: Senusret constructed a monolithic shrine, as well as the famous "White Chapel".

 
Two close-ups of the White Chapel

Tod: Senusret I built a temple dedicated to Montu. The temple from this period may have been started by the first two Mentuhoteps from the 11th dynasty.

Qift (or Koptos): This provincial capital was located near the entrance to the Wadi Hammamat. The main deity was Min. Remains of three temples still exist today. Various blocks bearing the name of Senusret I were found at this site.

 
Stela of Mentu-user, from the time of Senusret I
(Metmuseum)

The Sinai A statue from the Sinai desert shows that Senusret I established an ancestor cult dedicated to Snefru. On the Global Egyptian Museum Site this information is given:
"[A] fragment of statue in sandstone comes from the excavations of W. F. Petrie at Serabit el-Khadim in 1904-1905. It represents king Seneferu (4th Dynasty) sitting on a cubic seat of which three sides bear hieroglyphic signs. The texts inform us that the statue was dedicated by  king Senwosret I (12th Dynasty). The statue is the most ancient testimony from the Sinai of the practice of sovereigns of the 12th Dynasty of establishing a cult of their predecessors." (GEM) (Image- for more see website)


The reign of Senusret

If the story of Sinuhe can be trusted then Senusret I was on a military campaign against the Bedwin in the 30th year of King Amenemhet.

In the eighteenth year a stela of General Mentuhotep records military campaigns against Nubia. There is also metion of a campaign in the tomb of Sarenput from Elephantine, but it is not clear when that took place or how far south they went. Breasted mentions that the expedition mentioned by Mentuhotep may represent the conquest of the southern most limits reached in the Middle Kingdom.

Another noble who mentions expeditions agains Nubia is the son of Khnumhotep I, Amenemhet called Ameni. Ameni was commander of the troops from the Orynx nome and is recorded as sailing south to "overthrow his enemies among the four barbarians". It is not clear if this expedition coincides with those of Mentuhotep and / or Sarenput. Ameni also records a second expedition in which he travels south with the crown-prince Ameni to collect gold. Some 400 troops accompanied the crown-prince and the Orynx chief on this expedition. Ameni mentions a third expedition. He sailed south with 600 of his best soldiers to collect ore and bring it to Koptos. On this trip he seems to have been accompanied by the Vizier Senusret.

The tomb of Amenemhat called Ameni in Beni Hasan: This tomb is now referred to as BH2, but Lepsius has the tomb listed as "grab 1".
The inscriptions around the entry door were copied by Lepsius: Abt II, Band 4, Bl 121
Further inscription from the entry of the tomb can be found at Lepsius: Abt II, Band 4, Bl 122

Several military campaigns against Nubia are attested, with the foundation of fortresses, for example at Buhen, demonstrating expanding Egyptian control. 






Bibliography / Suggested Reading

  1. Breasted, J.H., Ancient Records of Egypt, Vol I, The First through the Seventeenth Dynasties, 2001 (originally appeared in 1906)
  2. Dodson, A., Hilton, D., The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, Thames & Hudson, 2004.
  3. Wilkinson R.H., The Complete Temples of Ancient Egypt, Thames & Hudson, 2000.
  4. http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/chronology/senusretI.html








Comments: email barta@slu.edu