Ancient Egypt


Page by Anneke Bart


Kings and Queens

4th dynasty
Seneferu, Khufu, Khafre, Menkaure, Djedefre, etc.

11th dynasty
Kings named Mentuhotep and Intef

12th dynasty
Amenemhet I - IV,
Senusret I-III

18th dynasty
Amenhotep I-IV,
Tuthmosis I-IV, Akhenaten, Tutankhamen, Aye, Horemheb, etc.

19th dynasty
Sety I-II, Ramesses I-II, Merenptah, Amenmesses, Tawosret.

20th dynasty

Sethnakht, Ramesses III
Ramesses IV - XI

25th dynasty
Alara, Kashta, Piye,
Shabaka, Shabataka,
Taharqa, Tanutamun, etc.

Cleopatra VII Philopator

Queens (D1-6)- Old Kingdom
Queens (D11-13) Middle Kingd.
Queens (D16-20)- New Kingdom
Queens (D21-29)- Late Period


Officials, Priesthood etc.
Viziers (New Kingdom)
High Priests of Amun
God's Wives of Amun
High Priests of Ptah
Viceroys of Nubia
Who's who of New Kingdom

Amarna Period
Queen Nefertiti
inscriptions Queen Nefertiti.
Queen Kiya

Tombs at Amarna
Houses at Amarna

Valley of the Kings,
Valley of the Queens
Theban Tombs,
Tombs at Abydos
Tombs at El Kab
Tombs in Aswan
Early dynastic Saqqara
New Kingdom Saqqara
The Unis Cemetary

Mastabas at the Giza Plateau
Giza Mastabas 1000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 2000 cemetary
Giza Mataba 2300 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 4000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 5000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 6000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 7000 cemetary

Mummy Caches
Tomb DB320
Tomb KV35

Baka, Setka, Baufre, Hordjedef

It is possible that one or more short lived rulers took the throne during the middle of the fourth dynasty. Possible Rulers :

Baka, son of Djedefre. May have succeeded his father Djedefre, or his uncle Khafre. Baka was married to a lady named Hetepheres (C). Could also have been a contender to the throne at the time of Menkaure. (Vernus, Yoyotte and Lorton, The book of Pharaohs, pg 69). A statue now in the Cairo Museum probably depicts Baka. He is shown with a small daughter named Mertiotes. Cairo Mus. CG 176. (Probably from Abû Rawâsh.) [PM VIII]

Setka, son of Djedefre. As a prince he is known from a statue found in Djedefre's temple. (Now in the Louvre museum)

, son of Khufu. May have ruled after Khafre. An inscription at Wadi Hamamat identifies Baufre as a son of Khufu and suggests that he was a succesor to his brother Khafre. Baufre may me identical to Prince Babaef. Babaef had a tomb in the Central Field at Giza.

Djedefhor (Hordjedef), son of Khufu. May have ruled after Khafre. An inscription at Wadi Hamamat identifies Djedefhor (Hordjedef) as a son of Khufu and suggests that he was a succesor to his brother Khafre. Hordjedef had a tomb at Giza G 7210+7220. The inscriptions in his tomb were damaged and this may have been an act by enemies. A cult was established for Hordjedef. A book of the dead seems to indicate he was still alive during the reign of Menkaure. If he ever ruled this would indicate he took the throne after Menkaure.


A pyramid near Zawiyet el-Aryan possibly dates to the fourth dynasty. The inscriptions found are read as [...]ka. This leaves several possibilities: Nebka (Dyn 3), Setka (Son of Djedefre), Baka (Son of Djedefre. The Horus name of this ruler mat have been Nebkare. Dodson-Hilton tentatively identifies the ruler as Nebkare Setka.


An inscription at Wadi Hamamat identifies Baufre and Djedefhor as sons of Khufu and suggests that they were successors to their brother Khafre. The Middle Kingdom Grafitti lists in order: Khuf(u), Djedefre, Khafre, Hordjedefre, and Bafre. Each of the names is enclosed in a cartouche. (Dodson-Hilton pg 54)


Some facts and interpretations of the archeological finds at the pyramid near Zawiyet el-Aryan :
  • The inscriptions on blocks from Zawiyet el-Aryan can also be read as Nebka or Neferkare, which would date the structure to the third dynasty. But this reading is not certain.
  • The use of large blocks and the style for the sarcophagus lead others to date the structure to the fourth dynasty. Some have suggested Baka, son of Djedefre was the builder. If the pyramid belongs to Baka, then Baka may have preceded or succeeded Khafre.
  • The substructure may suggest that the pyramid belongs to the time period between Djedefre and Khafre, pointing to Baka as the owner.



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