Ancient Egypt


Page by Anneke Bart


Kings and Queens

4th dynasty
Seneferu, Khufu, Khafre, Menkaure, Djedefre, etc.

11th dynasty
Kings named Mentuhotep and Intef

12th dynasty
Amenemhet I - IV,
Senusret I-III

18th dynasty
Amenhotep I-IV,
Tuthmosis I-IV, Akhenaten, Tutankhamen, Aye, Horemheb, etc.

19th dynasty
Sety I-II, Ramesses I-II, Merenptah, Amenmesses, Tawosret.

20th dynasty

Sethnakht, Ramesses III
Ramesses IV - XI

Cleopatra VII Philopator

Queens (D1-6)- Old Kingdom
Queens (D11-13) Middle Kingd.
Queens (D16-20)- New Kingdom
Queens (D21-29)- Late Period


Officials, Priesthood etc.
Viziers (New Kingdom)
High Priests of Amun
God's Wives of Amun
High Priests of Ptah
Viceroys of Nubia
Who's who of New Kingdom

Amarna Period
Queen Nefertiti
inscriptions Queen Nefertiti.
Queen Kiya

Tombs at Amarna
Houses at Amarna

Valley of the Kings,
Valley of the Queens
Theban Tombs,
Tombs at Abydos
Tombs at El Kab
Tombs in Aswan
Early dynastic Saqqara
New Kingdom Saqqara
The Unis Cemetary

Mastabas at the Giza Plateau
Giza Mastabas 1000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 2000 cemetary
Giza Mataba 2300 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 4000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 5000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 6000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 7000 cemetary

Mummy Caches
Tomb DB320
Tomb KV35


Horus name: Shepses-khet
Nebty name: Shepses-nebty
Nomen: Shepseskaf

Shepseskaf may have been a son of Menkaure.

His Pyramid
Shepseskaf broke with tradition and moved the necropolis to South Saqqara where he erected a Mastaba now called Mastabat Fara’un. In antiquity the structure was named Khebu-Shepseskhaf which means Shepseskhaf is purified.

Miroslav Verner mentions that "the entrance to the substructure resembles that of a pyramid more than that of a mastaba". Jequier suggested that the unusual shape of the tomb was a rejection of the pyramid (as a symbol of Re). There may have been an attempt to stop the increasing influence of the priesthood of Re. Several other egyptologists disagreed. Ricke stated that the obelisk was the symbol of Re, not the pyramid. He suggested the tomb was conceived as a "Buto type" tomb.  Muller thought it resembled an enormous stone version of a hut hung with matting.

Stadelman at some point questioned why an archaic form of niches was used. This together with the fact that the tomb is not close to Giza, but actually closer to one of Snefru's pyramids. It has been suggested that Shepseskaf was the son of a secondary wife of Menkaure and tried to strengthen his claim on the throne by associating himself with the founder of the 4th dynasty. Another line of thought is that Shepseskaf finished the construction of Menkaure and this was a major drain on resources. A large infrastructure was necessary at Giza to complete Menkaure's pyramid and temple. The tomb of Shepseskaf was started at the Saqqara site, but could not use the full resources of the egyptian state because of the Giza building project that needed to be finished first. The similarities of the substructure of the Mastabat Fara'un to those of a pyramid could suggest that the tomb was meant to become a pyramid.

Shepseskaf only reigned 4 years and his early demise may have been the reason that the pyramid was never completed and the tomb took the final shape it has.  (Page 154-259 of Verner - The Pyramids: The mystery, culture, and Science of Egypt's Great Monuments)

See Saqqara Online for more information.

The Mastaba of Shepseskaf (Photo: Jon Bodsworth)

Royal Ladies possibly associated with Shepseskaf
  • Khentkaues I ? (sometimes written as Khentkawes I)  Khentkaues may have been a daughter of Menkaure and wife of Shepseskaf, but this is by no means certain. Her Mastaba at Giza is located very close to Menkaure's pyramid complex. This close connection may point to a family relationship, but it is not quite clear exactly what that relationship is. Buried in tomb LG100 in Giza. Appears to have served as a regent and may have even taken on Kingly titles. Some of her titles are ambiguous and are apparently open for interpretation.
    Titles: King’s Mother (mwt-niswt), Mother of Two Dual Kings (mwt-nswy-bitwy) OR Dual King and Mother of a Dual King (nsw-bity mwt-nsw-bity)
  • Bunefer ? She served as a prophetess of Shepseskhaf. She dates to the end of the fourth dynasty. Mother of Khamaat. Dorman (2002) states that Bunefer was the wife of Userkaf. Some think Bunefer was Shepsekaf's wife instead of his daughter. Her daughter Khamaat married an official named Ptahshepses.  Grdseloff states that her titles indicate she had to be a daughter of Shepseskaf.                                                                                                                                                                                  Titles: King’s Wife (hmt-nisw), Great one of the hetes-sceptre (wrt-hetes), Great one of the hetes-sceptre of the two ladies (wrt-hetes-nbti), She who sees Horus and Seth (m33t-hrw-stsh), King’s Wife, his beloved (hmt-nisw meryt.f), King’s Daughter of his body (s3t-niswt-nt-kht.f), Priestess of Hathor (hmt-ntr-hwt-hrw), Priestess of Tjadjepef (hmt-ntr-t3-zp.f), Priestess of the Horus Shepsesket (hmt-ntr-hrw-shpss-ht), Beloved and revered priestess of Shepses-nebti (hmt-ntr-shpss-nbti-mryt.f-im3kht.f).
Nobles from the time of Shepseskaf

Babaef (sometimes called Khnembaf), Hereditary prince, Companion, Overseer of all works of the King, etc. (Probably Vizier of
Shepseskaf.) Buried in G 5230.

Ptahshepses. This noble was born during the reign of Menkaure and according to autobiographical inscriptions he was educated with the royal children. Ptahshepses may have been a tutor of Shepseskaf. The inscriptions suggest that he married the eldest daughter of the king Maatka. Ptahshepses served several more kings; likely Userkaf, Sahure and Nefefrirkare.


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