Ancient Egypt


Page by Anneke Bart


Kings and Queens
11th dynasty
Mentuhotep I
Intef I Sehertawy
Intef II Wahankh
Intef III
Mentuhotep II Nebhepetre
Mentuhotep III Sankhare
Mentuhotep IV Nebtawyre

12th dynasty
Amenemhat I (Sehetepibre)
Senusret I Kheperkare
Amenemhat (II) Nubkaure
Senusret (II) Khakheperre
Senusret (III) Khakaure
Amenemhat (III) Nimaatre
Amenemhat (IV) Maakherure
Queen Sobeknefru Sobekkare

18th dynasty
Amenhotep I
Tuthmosis I
Tuthmosis II
Queen Hatshepsut
Tuthmosis III
Amenhotep II
Tuthmosis IV
Amenhotep III
Queen Tiye
Queen Nefertiti
inscriptions Queen Nefertiti.
Queen Kiya


19th dynasty
Ramesses I
Sety I
Queen Mut-Tuya,
Ramses II

Queen Nefertari
Queen Isetnofret  
Queen Bint-Anath  
Queen Merytamen  
Queen Henutmire
Queen Nebettawy
Prince Khaemwaset
Temples - Ramesses II
Seti II, Amenmesse,
Siptah, and Tawosret 

20th dynasty

Ramesses III

Ramesses IV - XI

Cleopatra VII Philopator

Old Kingdom Queens (Dyn 1-6)
Middle Kingdom Queens (Dyn 11-13)
New Kingdom Queens (Dyn 16-20)


Officials, Priesthood etc.
Viziers (New Kingdom)
High Priests of Amun
God's Wives of Amun
High Priests of Ptah
Viceroys of Nubia
Who's who of New Kingdom

Amarna Period
Queen Nefertiti
inscriptions Queen Nefertiti.
Queen Kiya

Tombs at Amarna
Houses at Amarna

Valley of the Kings,
Valley of the Queens
Theban Tombs,
Tombs at Abydos
Tombs at El Kab
Tombs in Aswan
Early dynastic Saqqara
New Kingdom Saqqara
The Unis Cemetary

Mastabas at the Giza Plateau
Giza Mastabas 1000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 2000 cemetary
Giza Mataba 2300 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 4000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 5000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 6000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 7000 cemetary

Mummy Caches
Tomb DB320
Tomb KV35



Statue from Musée l’Egypte et le Monde Antique, Monaco

Ankhkheperure Smenkhare Djeserkheperure


 Smenkhare Djeserkheperure 

Neferneferuaten Mery-Waenre 

Smenkhare followed Akhenaten on the throne. He may or may not have served as a co-regent with Ahenaten for a short period.
Some think Smenkhare was a son of Akhenaten, while others believe him to be a son of Amenhotep III (possibly by Queen Sitamen?)
He married Akhenaten's eldest daughter - Meritaten -  and ruled Egypt for 1-3 years. Smenkhare was followed on the throne by the well-known pharaoh Tutankhamen.
The archeological record concerning Smenkhare is very confusing. His depiction in Meryre's tomb shows that he did exist and was married to Meritaten. The confusion comes from the existence of an individual named Ankhkheperure Neferneferuaten. Some believe that Ankhkheperure Neferneferuaten is just another name for Smenkhare, while others believe that Ankhkheperure Neferneferuaten is a separate individual (a female co-regent?). Many papers have been written on this topic, but no firm concensus seems to have been reached among the egyptologists.

Two Amarna Kings. Thought to depict Akhenaten and possibly Smenkhare.
Cairo Museum (Jon Bodsworth)

A scene showing a royal couple was discovered by Newbury and is thought to depict Smenkhare and Merytaten. This identification is not certain however.

Smenkhare and Merytaten?

What is known about Smenhare from the archeological record:

Some of the inscriptions/scenes mentioning Smenkhare are:
1. Inscription in the tomb of Meryre II in Amarna, showing Smenkhare with Great Royal Wife Meritaten. Smenkhare and Meritaten are shown before the window of appearance while awarding Meryre with the golden collars often seen in these types of scenes. The position of Smenkhare and Meritaten with the palace with the window of appearance shown behind them is rather peculiar.
2. An Amarna Block reused in Hermopolis. No (surviving) image, but the names of Smenkhare and Meritaten appear together on this block.
3. A wine docket mentioning “Year 1: wine of the estate of Smenkh[ka]re”
4. A calcite Jar in the Tomb of Tutankhamen. The inscription was expunged but can be reconstructed and mentions Akhenaten as well as Ankhkheperure, the son of Re, Smenkhare holy-of-manifestations.

Some ambiguous information:
1. The altered inscription on the coffin from tomb KV55 seems to refer to a man, and the text seems to indicate that this man was related to Akhenaten. It is entirely possible that this inscription referred to Smenkhare and that the inscription is a prayer by Akhenaten on behalf of this individual. Allen mentions that a possible reconstruction of the text includes:
King of Upper and Lower Egypt […?], son of (?) The King of Upper and Lower Egypt, living in order, Lord of the Two Lands [Neferkheperure Waenre].
2. The unfinished stela of the Soldier Pasi. This depicts two unnamed pharaohs. The pose would fit better with Akhenaten and a female co-regent than Akhenaten with Smenkhare, but the missing names do not allow for positive identification.
3. An unfinished relief in Berlin shows Akhenaten and another King (wearing a Khepresh crown) This King is pouring a libation in a cup held by Akhenaten.
4. Theban Inscription:
This inscription appears as grafitti in a Theban Tomb, TT139 the tomb of Pairi.. The question of the identity of Ankhkheperure Neferneferuaten has not been firmly established. If this individual is Smenkhare, then this would indicate a rule of as many as three years. It is possible however that this refers to another ruler or co-regent.
Regnal year 3, third month of Inundation, day 10. The King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Lord of the Two Lands Ankhkheperure Beloved of Aten, the Son of Re Neferneferuaten Beloved of Waenre. Giving worship to Amun, kissing the ground to Wenennefer by the lay priest, scribe of the divine offerings of Amun in the Mansion of Ankhkheperure in Thebes, Pawah, born to Yotefseneb. He says:
"My wish is to see you, O lord of persea trees! May your throat take the north wind, that you may give satiety without eating and drunkenness without drinking. My wish is to look at you, that my heart might rejoice, O Amun, protector of the poor man: you are the father of the one who has no mother and the husband of the widow. Pleasant is the utterance of your name: it islike the taste of life . . . [etc.]
"Come back to us, O lord of continuity. You were here before anything had come into being, and you will be here when they are gone. As you caused me to see the darkness that is yours to give, make light for me so that I can see you . . . 
"O Amun, O great lord who can be found by seeking him, may you drive off fear! Set rejoicing in people's heart(s). Joyful is the one who sees you, O Amun: he is in festival every day!" 
For the Ka of the lay priest and scribe of the temple of Amun in the Mansion of Ankhkheperure, Pawah, born to Yotefseneb: "For your Ka! Spend a nice day amongst your townsmen." His brother, the outline draftsman Batchay of the Mansion of Ankhkheperure. (Murnane, 1995).



The Coffin from KV 55   

It is now believed by many (but not all) that Smenkhare was buried in KV55. KV55 was discovered in 1907, and the body was first identified by Davis ass being that of QUeen Tiye, the wife of Amenhotep III and mother of Akhenaten. It quickly became clear though that this was the body of a male. There have been some conflicting reports about the age of the individual. The ages have been reported as anywhere from 16 to early thirties. But in recent studies most people seem to place the age in the lower range: between  19 and 21 years of age.
The skull shows a similarity to that of Tutankhamen, and the bloodtype of the two men also matches: A2MN. This suggests that the body of the man in KV55 is that of Smenkhare and that quite likely Smenkhare was a brother of Tutankhamen.

  Canopic Jar lid from KV 55.

J.P.Allen Akhenaten’s ‘Mystery’ Coregent and Successor, from Amarna Letters Vol 1 (1991)
Murnane, Texts from the Amarna Period (1995)
Dodson and Hilton, The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt (2004)

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