Ancient Egypt


Page by Anneke Bart


Kings and Queens

4th dynasty
Seneferu, Khufu, Khafre, Menkaure, Djedefre, etc.

11th dynasty
Kings named Mentuhotep and Intef

12th dynasty
Amenemhet I - IV,
Senusret I-III

18th dynasty
Amenhotep I-IV,
Tuthmosis I-IV, Akhenaten, Tutankhamen, Aye, Horemheb, etc.

19th dynasty
Sety I-II, Ramesses I-II, Merenptah, Amenmesses, Tawosret.

20th dynasty

Sethnakht, Ramesses III
Ramesses IV - XI

Cleopatra VII Philopator

Queens (D1-6)- Old Kingdom
Queens (D11-13) Middle Kingd.
Queens (D16-20)- New Kingdom
Queens (D21-29)- Late Period


Officials, Priesthood etc.
Viziers (New Kingdom)
High Priests of Amun
God's Wives of Amun
High Priests of Ptah
Viceroys of Nubia
Who's who of New Kingdom

Amarna Period
Queen Nefertiti
inscriptions Queen Nefertiti.
Queen Kiya

Tombs at Amarna
Houses at Amarna

Valley of the Kings,
Valley of the Queens
Theban Tombs,
Tombs at Abydos
Tombs at El Kab
Tombs in Aswan
Early dynastic Saqqara
New Kingdom Saqqara
The Unis Cemetary

Mastabas at the Giza Plateau
Giza Mastabas 1000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 2000 cemetary
Giza Mataba 2300 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 4000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 5000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 6000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 7000 cemetary

Mummy Caches
Tomb DB320
Tomb KV35


Sobeknefru Sobekkare

Horus name: Merytre 
Nebty name: Sat-sekhem-nebettawy 
Golden Falcon name: Djed-et-kha 
Prenomen: Sobekkare 
Nomen: Sobeknefru 

Burial place: Unknown, maybe Mazghuna?

This Queen's name is sometimes written as Nefrusobek. She was a Queen-Pharoah and the 8th ruler of the 12th Dynasty. Probably the daughter of Amenemhet III and the half sister of Amenemhet IV.

Sobekneferu ruled at the end of the Twelfth Dynasty. Some have suggested that she ruled alongside Amenemhat III and/or Amenemhat IV. According to Egyptian tradition, she ruled independently. The Turin Canon gives almost 4 years of rule, as does Manetho.

More specifically, the Turin Kinglist states
"The King of Upper and Lower Egypt [Sobek]-nef[ru]-re, 3 years, 10 months and 24 days"

Statues from Tell el-Daba and the Fayoum as well as an architrave from Herakleopolis have been found. Inscription on the nilometer at Nubian Semna records 3 years of her rule. An inscription from Hawara shows her name (see below).

She is thought to have built a pyramid at Mazghuna. The structure was apparently not been completed, and probably never used. Only its underground part was finished.

Torso of Sobekneferu, from the Fayoum.
Now in the Louvre.

Statues from the reign of Sobekneferu have only partially survived. A statue from the louvre shown an inetresting mix of female and male characteristics. The head is missing, but Queen Sobekneferu clearly wore a nemes headress. She is depicted as wearing a female dress, but she wore a kilt as usually worn by pharaohs over the top of it.

On Digitalegypt an inscription from Hawara naming Neferusobek can be seen:

For a better quality image see digitalegypt: UC 14337

The names come from the digitalegypt website:

A selection of articles from the AEB (Annual Egyptological Bibliography):
(The descriptions come from the AEB site - usually the actual AEB description are much longer.)

von Beckerath, J., Nochmals zur Chronologie der XII. Dynastie, Orientalia 64 (1995), 445-449.
An improved reconstruction of the chronology of the XIIth Dynasty is attempted. In this new reconstruction, the end of queen Nefrusobek’s reign, the last ruler of the dynasty, fell in 1794/1793 B.C. and the accession of Amenemhat I in 1976 B.C.

Vandersleyen, C., L’Égypte et la Vallée du Nil. Tome II: De la fin de l’Ancien Empire à la fin du Nouvel Empire, Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 1995
In part II, which contains seven chapters, much more room is given to the XIIth Dynasty.[..] The reigns of Amenemhat II, Sesostris II, Amenemhat IV and Neferusobek (Sobekneferu?) are only briefly reviewed.

Cimmino, F., Sesostris. Storia del Medio Regno Egiziano, Milano, Rusconi, 1996
ch. 9, Amenemhat IV, Sobekneferure and the end of the M.K.

Leprohon, R. J., The Programmatic Use of the Royal Titulary in the Twelfth Dynasty, JARCE 33 (1996), 165-171. (fig.).
An examination of the royal titulary in the XIIth Dynasty indicates that, in addition to the general wHm-mswt in the Horus name of Amenemhat I, every king wished to announce a given policy of his own. [...] The programmatic use of the royal titularies of Amenemhat I, Sesostris I, Amenemhat II, Sesostris II, Sesostris II, Amenemhat III, Amenemhat IV, and Sobeknofru is reviewed in this light.

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