Ancient Egypt


Page by Anneke Bart


Kings and Queens

4th dynasty
Seneferu, Khufu, Khafre, Menkaure, Djedefre, etc.

11th dynasty
Kings named Mentuhotep and Intef

12th dynasty
Amenemhet I - IV,
Senusret I-III

18th dynasty
Amenhotep I-IV,
Tuthmosis I-IV, Akhenaten, Tutankhamen, Aye, Horemheb, etc.

19th dynasty
Sety I-II, Ramesses I-II, Merenptah, Amenmesses, Tawosret.

20th dynasty

Sethnakht, Ramesses III
Ramesses IV - XI

25th dynasty
Alara, Kashta, Piye,
Shabaka, Shabataka,
Taharqa, Tanutamun, etc.

Cleopatra VII Philopator

Queens (D1-6)- Old Kingdom
Queens (D11-13) Middle Kingd.
Queens (D16-20)- New Kingdom
Queens (D21-29)- Late Period


Officials, Priesthood etc.
Viziers (New Kingdom)
High Priests of Amun
God's Wives of Amun
High Priests of Ptah
Viceroys of Nubia
Who's who of New Kingdom

Amarna Period
Queen Nefertiti
inscriptions Queen Nefertiti.
Queen Kiya

Tombs at Amarna
Houses at Amarna

Valley of the Kings,
Valley of the Queens
Theban Tombs,
Tombs at Abydos
Tombs at El Kab
Tombs in Aswan
Early dynastic Saqqara
New Kingdom Saqqara
The Unis Cemetary

Mastabas at the Giza Plateau
Giza Mastabas 1000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 2000 cemetary
Giza Mataba 2300 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 4000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 5000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 6000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 7000 cemetary

Mummy Caches
Tomb DB320
Tomb KV35



Horus name: Qaikhau
Nebty name: Qaikhau
Golden Falcon name: Khutawy
Prenomen: Khuinefertemre
Nomen: Taharqo

(about 690-664 BC)

Son Of Piye and Queen Abar. King Taharqa (690-664 BC) succeeded his brother Shabataka. He is regarded as a ruler who re-united the Land after the defeat against the Assyrians by Shabataka, which would have influenced internal rebellions. He is also regarded as the king who lost the entire land to the Assyrians shortly after .

Taharqa followed by his mother Abar offering to the gods.
Gebel Barkal - room C.  Lepsius Denkmahler V

Taharqa's 26 year reign stands out from any other in the Third Intermediate Period by the extent of the building program he implemented in the first sixteen years of his reign, and the extent of the fighting against the Assyrians in the later years. Taharqa invested considerable resources into celebrating the glory of Amon, first in his native Kingdom of Napata, later in his Egyptian territories as well. Respectful of Egypt's cultural heritage, Taharqa set out to draw on the traditions of the Old and Middle Kingdoms, using new materials (previous Intermediate Period cash-strapped kings had taken to pilfering stone from older buildings) to restore and build anew. In the kingdom of Napata, he built in every important site: Sanam, Napata, Abu Dom, and Kawa. In Kawa particularly, he rebuilt and expanded a temple complex that became the second most important in Kush. In Egypt, it’s at Karnak that he made the greatest impact, thanks to the man he installed as Mayor of the City: the great Nubian Mentuemhet, a man who took an extraordinary pride out of his title as a fourth prophet to Amon. At Karnak, the Sacred Lake structures, the kiosk in the first court, and the colonnades at the temple entrance are all owed to Taharqa and Mentuemhet. Memphis, the capital of the Old Kingdom and royal residence of Kushite kings also received much attention, respecting the importance of Ptah, despite the Kushite's devotion to Amun.
Taharqa also warred against the Assyrians in Sydon around 677 BC which caused Esarhaddon’s campaigns against Lower Egypt in the following years. In 674 BC, King Esarhaddon of Assyria, angered over the Egyptian interference with his vassal states in Palestine and attacked Egypt. Taharqa swiftly rebuked their advance, and caused the invaders to retreat. But another three years later, in 671 BC, the Assyrians try again and succeed. The Delta subsequently falls into Assyrian possession while Taharqa escapes to Thebes. The Assyrians take Memphis, capture the royal queen and the crown prince and establish native puppet-chieftains and their representatives in all key positions. In Sais, a certain prince Nekau (Necho) swears allegiance to the Assyrians and his son is sent to Assyria for political training. As soon as the Assyrians leave the country to their Egyptian vassals, Taharqa drives his forces north again and regains full control of Egypt. In 669 BC Taharqa would have restored his rule over the complete Delta-region. In 667 BC, the Assyrians come back though, pushing much further south this time.

Taharqa flees to Napata this time and the Assyrians once again get Egyptian governors to pledge allegiance to Assyria. When they leave again, several local kings and governors plot to bring Taharqa back. But this time, the Assyrians squelch the insurrection by having all plotters assassinated. The only surviving Egyptian is Nekau, who had prudently abstained from participating in the plot while his son (the future Psamtik I) was still in the hands of the Assyrians. Taharqa now was betrayed a second time by the alien chiefs of the Delta and abandoned his hopes of ever regaining Egypt. Mentuemhet, the governor of Thebes, remained loyal to Taharqa, as did the Divine Adoratrice of Amon. (Text by Bart v. A.)

Burial: Pyramid Nuri 1

  • Tabekenamun King’s Daughter , King’s Wife King’s Sister etc. Daughter of Piye. Wife of Taharqa or Shebitqa. (Dodson –Hilton, Grajetzki) Known from Cairo Statue 49 157 from Karnak
  • Naparaye. King’s Sister, King’s Wife, etc. Wife of Taharqa. Buried in el-Kurru pyramid 3. (Dodson –Hilton, Grajetzki) Known from an alabaster offering stone.
  • Takahatamun King’s Sister, King’s Wife, etc. Wife of Taharqa. Shown behind Taharqa in Gebel Barkal Temple. (Dodson –Hilton, Grajetzki)  Daughter of Piye (Dunham and Macadam) Inscription at Barkal. Reisner proposed Nuri 21 as her pyramid.
  • Atakhebasken, Great Royal Wife. Possibly a wife of Taharqa, buried in a puramid in Nuri. (Dodson –Hilton, Grajetzki) Pyramid Nuri 36.
  • [A]salka. Mother of Atlanersa and possibly wife of Taharqa. (Dunham and Macadam)

Taharqa followed by Queen Takahatamun at Gebel Barkal - Lepsius Denkmahler V

  • Amenirdis II, King’s Daughter, Adoratrice, God’s Hand. Adopted by Shepenwepet II as heir and hence second in line for the position of God’s Wife of Amun.The position was eventually inherited by Nitokris I though. Buried in Medinet Habu.
  • Yuterow. Buried in Nuri 53. Daughter of Taharqa and wife of Atlanersa. (Dunham and Macadam) Painted on walls of burial chamber ; heart scarab; on destroyed pylon of Barkal 700.


Statue of a god, possibly with the features of Taharqa. 


A granite ram and a sphinx from Kawa. Depicting Taharqa.

Taharqa before Amun and Mut. Now in the Ashmolean Museum


Last edited: February 2008

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