Ancient Egypt


Page by Anneke Bart

Kings and Queens
11th dynasty
Mentuhotep I
Intef I Sehertawy
Intef II Wahankh
Intef III
Mentuhotep II Nebhepetre
Mentuhotep III Sankhare
Mentuhotep IV Nebtawyre

12th dynasty
Amenemhat I (Sehetepibre)
Senusret I Kheperkare
Amenemhat (II) Nubkaure
Senusret (II) Khakheperre
Senusret (III) Khakaure
Amenemhat (III) Nimaatre
Amenemhat (IV) Maakherure
Queen Sobeknefru Sobekkare

18th dynasty
Amenhotep I
Tuthmosis I
Tuthmosis II
Queen Hatshepsut
Tuthmosis III
Amenhotep II
Tuthmosis IV
Amenhotep III
Queen Tiye
Queen Nefertiti
inscriptions Queen Nefertiti.
Queen Kiya


19th dynasty
Ramesses I
Sety I
Queen Mut-Tuya,
Ramses II
    Queen Nefertari
     Queen Isetnofret  
     Queen Bint-Anath  
     Queen Merytamen  
     Queen Henutmire
     Queen Nebettawy
     Queen Maathorneferure    Princes
    Prince Amenhirkhepeshef
    Prince Ramesses
    Prince Prehirwenemef
    Prince Khaemwaset
    Prince Montuhirkhepeshef
    Prince Mery-Amen
    Prince Sety
    Prince Mery-Atum
Temples - Ramesses II
Seti II, Amenmesse,
Siptah, and Tawosret 

20th dynasty

Ramesses III

Ramesses IV - XI

Cleopatra VII Philopator

Old Kingdom Queens (Dyn 1-6)
Middle Kingdom Queens (Dyn 11-13)
New Kingdom Queens (Dyn 16-20)

Officials, Priesthood etc.
Viziers (New Kingdom)
High Priests of Amun
God's Wives of Amun
High Priests of Ptah
Viceroys of Nubia
Who's who of New Kingdom

Amarna Period
Queen Nefertiti
inscriptions Queen Nefertiti.
Queen Kiya

Tombs at Amarna
Houses at Amarna

Valley of the Kings,
Valley of the Queens
Theban Tombs,
Tombs at Abydos
Tombs at El Kab
Tombs in Aswan
Early dynastic Saqqara
New Kingdom Saqqara
The Unis Cemetary

Mastabas at the Giza Plateau
Giza Mastabas 1000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 2000 cemetary
Giza Mataba 2300 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 4000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 5000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 6000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 7000 cemetary

Mummy Caches
Tomb DB320
Tomb KV35

Sety II, Amenmesse, Siptah, and Tawosret

ca 1204 - 1187 BC

This time period is not very well understood. Some think that Amenmesse preceded Sety II. Others think Amenmesse only ruled in Upper Egypt. It is generally assumed that Siptah followed these two kings and that Tawosret served as regent. Tawosret did take the throne after the death of Siptah.
For instance:
Dodson has the following dates: Sety II 1201-1195 BC, Amenmesse1200-1196 BC, Siptah 1195-1189 BC, Tausret 1189-1187 BC
Kitchen gives the follwing years: Amenmesse 1204-1200 BC; Sety II 1200-1194 BC , Siptah 1194-1188 BC, Tausret 1188-1187 BC

Sety II
Horus name:
Kanakht Werpehti
Kanakht Merymaat
Kanakht Meryhapi
Kanakht Merymaat-nebanemnisutmiitmu
Nebty name:
Golden Falcon name:
Userkheperure Setepenre
Sekhaenre-meryamun (early form),
Akhenre-setepenre (late form)
 Sety Merenptah
Siptah Merenptah
KV 15
KV 10
KV 47
KV 14

Sety II


Sety II was likely the son of King Merenptah and Queen Isetnofret.
As the son of Merenptah and Queen Isisnofret, Seti II was the rightful heir to the throne. Seti II seems to have had his royal prerogatives usurped by an ephemeral personage named Amenmesse. One theory holds that Seti II was absent at the time of his father's death (perhaps involved with a military campaign?) and Amenmesse took advantage of the temporary power vacuum to have himself installed on the throne. After a brief reign of five years, Amenmesse died and Seti II became ruler. He initiated a program of damnatio memorae against Amenmesse and his monuments. Seti II had two wives: Takhat II, and Tawosret (who was the mother of crown prince Seti-Merenptah). Apparently Seti-Merenptah predeceased his father, and Siptah eventually became king. Sety II's mummy was found in the KV35 cache.

Seti II leading prisoners at Karnak.

Liverpool Museum has records of two interesting items from this time. Quoting the Global Egyptian Museum site:
"The inscribed limestone base of a statue, unfortunately lost in the war. The text is incised around the edges, in front and on top, by Merenptah (or Sethos II) and usurped by Amenmesse, later in the 19th Dynasty. According to the entry in Gatty's catalogue of the Mayer collection: 'The inscriptions are cut round the sides of the pedestal and one of the cartouches has apparently been erased; a kind of blue colouring has been put over the whole."

"A limestone fragment of a scene, from either a stela or a wall. The scene depicts the god Amun handing the emblems of the Sed-festival to King Amenmesse. The god wears the distinctive tall, plumed headdress, collar, armlets and bracelets. Only the hand of the king remains to be seen. The workmanship is very fine and the preservation was described as 'good'." The piece was lost in 1941.


The parents of Amenmesse are not known. It is possible he is a son of Merenptah, or even a son of Ramesses II. Some have suggested that Amenmesse is identical to the Viceroy of Nubia named Messuy. Some have interpreted inscriptions as saying that Amenmesse was the son of Merenptah and a Queen Takhat. Baketwerel was Amenmesse's great royal wife.

Amenmesse and Queen Takhat


Siptah could be a son of Sety II or a son of Amenmesse. There is an ostracon in the Louvre which has been interpreted by some as saying that Ramesses-Siptah was the son of a minor queen Sutererey. Kitchen on the other hand attributes this inscription to a son of Ramesses II, also called Ramesses-Siptah. If Siptah was a son of Seti II, then he may have become crown prince when his elder brother, Seti-Merenptah (son of Seti II and Tawosret), died. Siptah inherited the kingship, but his stepmother(?) Tawosret and Chancellor Bay remained the powers behind the throne during his brief 6 rear reign. Inscriptions seem to indicate that Siptah had chancellor Bay executed in his sixth year.

Siptah as depicted in his tomb.


Tawosret was great royal wife to Sety II and later regent for Siptah. After Siptah's death she took on the role of Pharaoh. Her name is also written as Tausret, Taousert, and Twosret.

Queen Tawosret

  Scarab inscribed for Satre-Mer-n-Amen (i.e. Tawosret) UC12839. See for more details.

Plaque from foundation deposit. Identified as cartouches of Tausret on the Petrie museum site.
UC14377 - See for more details.

Ostracon mentioning [Year X] wine of the 21st day... queen of Upper and Lower Egypt, Sit-ra-merit-Amen..."(Spiegelberg) UC30037  - See for more details.

Tombs and Temples from this time

KV 10 Tomb of Amenmesse in the Valley of the Kings. Re-used by Queens Takhat and Baketwerel  Possibly 20th dynasty; time of Rameses IX. KV 10 was cut during the reign of Amenmeses, but no evidence survives to indicate that he was interred in the tomb. At some later date, the tomb was usurped by Takhat, who bore the titles of king's daughter and great royal wife, and another queen, Baketwerel. The origins of these two royal women are not certain, but it is now thought that they are related to Rameses IX of Dynasty 20. It is also possible that Takhat and Baketwerel are the mother and wife of Amenmesse. The tomb of Baketwerel is mentioned in the tomb robber papyri of the 20th dynasty.
Amenmesse Project : The Amenmesse Project, involving excavation and conservation of KV10 - the tomb of the 19th Dynasty pharaoh Amenmesse, was initially conducted under the auspices of the University of Arizona. The Project is now being completed by Director Otto Schaden for the University of Memphis.
(Website maintained by the University of memphis Mission)

KV 13 Tomb of Chancellor Bay. The tomb of Bay is situated at the end of the southwest branch of the southwest wadi, close to the tombs of Sety II, Tausert and Siptah. The architecture and decoration closely resemble that of the tomb of Queen Tausert. The tomb was built for Bay, originally a royal scribe of Sety II and later chancellor under Siptah. The privilege of being granted a tomb in the Valley of the Kings reflects his status. The tomb, however, was left unfinished and was later reused by the royal princes Amenherkhepshef and Mentuherkhepshef in Dynasty 20. (Text from the Theban Mapping project).

KV 14 - Tausert and Setnakht, dynasties 19 and 20. The tomb was originally started for Queen Tausert, but it was taken over in Dynasty 20 for the burial of Setnakht. Her mummiform granite sarcophagus was recently found in KV 13 where it had been re-used for the burial of prince Amenherkhepeshef. In most instances, the image and name of the queen were replaced with those of Setnakht.

KV 15 Tomb of Sety II. The history of KV 15 is not fully known. It has been suggested that the decoration of gate and corridor B was interrupted, perhaps during the reign of Amenmesse, if that king did indeed reign concurrently with Sety II rather than prior to him. There is definite evidence of the erasure of Sety II's names followed by their recarving, and these deletions may have taken place either during the usurpation of Amenmeses or during the reign of Siptah and later restored by Tausert.

KV 47 - Siptah. The tomb was the burial place of Siptah. The cartouches of the king were erased, then restored with paint. The mummy of Siptah was found in the tomb of Amenhetep II (KV 35) by Victor Loret in 1898.

KV 56 - [...]? This tomb consists of a deep shaft entryway (A) leading to a large, undecorated and unfinished chamber (B). It contained objects bearing the names of Rameses II, Sety II, as well as Tausert. A large amount of gold jewellery was discovered in the tomb. Since most of the objects found inside bear the names of Tausert and Sety II (as well as Rameses II), Maspero believed that all the materials found in KV 56 were taken from KV 14, the tomb of Tausert, which was usurped by Setnakht. Aldred, on the other hand, argued that KV 56 was not a cache, but rather an essentially intact burial of a child of Sety II and Tausert. He based his theory on the fact that near the left (west) wall of chamber B were remains of stucco, gold leaves and inlays, which could be from a coffin.

Tausert Temple Project : The University of Arizona Egyptian Expedition's current archaeological project is the excavation, conservation, and publication of the remains of the memorial temple of Tausert, the 19th Dynasty queen who ruled as a king c. 1200 B.C.E. This uncompleted temple was briefly examined by Sir W. M. Flinders Petrie in 1896 but the first field seasons of our project (2004, 2005) have demonstrated that Petrie's work at the site was far from thorough. Numerous artifacts have already been recovered from previously unexcavated areas along with evidence that the temple was further developed than previously believed.

Other Personae from that time period

Amenmes. Vizier. Served under both Seti II and Amenmesses in Upper Egypt. Amenmes was a judge in the case of the workman Paneb vs. his colleague and step-father Neferhotep.

Bay, his full name was Ramses-Khementer-Bay. Wearer of the royal seal, sole companion, casting out lying, presenting truth; whom the king established [inlb the seat of his father, great chief treasurer of the whole land,. He had tomb KV 13 built for himself. Time of Siptah.

Hori, Vizier. He was a son of the High Priest of Ptah Hori, and hence a grand-son of Prince-Khaemwaset. Hori served from the time of Merneptah until the time of Ramessses III.

Hori, son of Kem (K'm), Appears first as the first charioteer of his majesty, king's-messenger to every country, to establish the chiefs upon their thrones, satisfying the heart of his lord, in year 3 of Siptah.

Khaemteri. The ex-viceroy of Kush was appointed Vizier by Amenmesse.

Neferhor, scribe, son of Neferhor, scribe of the archives of Pharaoh, L. P. H. Present at the installation of Seti as Viceroy.

Pa-Ra-emheb: A vizier who replaces Khaemteri after Amenmesse dies. Pa-Ra-emheb himself is later replaced by the Northern Vizier Hori.

Piyay (Pyy'y), fan-bearer on the king's right hand, king's-scribe, overseer of the treasury, king's-scribe of the archives of Pharaoh, steward in the housee in the house of Amon. Shown receiving tribute from Kush for Ramses-Siptah.

Rekhpehtuf (Rb-phtw'f), the king's-messenger to every country, companion of the feet of the Lord of the Two Lands, favorite of Horus in the palace (the king), first charioteer of his majesty. Mentioned in year 1 of Ramses-Siptah.

Seti,  king's-son of Kush, made viceroy in year I of Ramses-Siptah. Also fan-bearer on the king's right hand, hereditary prince, chief steward of the king, king's-scribe of the records of Pharaoh.

Ubekhu (Wbb'w): first charioteer of his majesty, king's-messenger to every country. Possibly son of Hori, Viceroy of Kush.

Some internet references:

From University College London:
Sety II:

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